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动物营养学报 2017, Vol. 29 Issue (9) :3220-3231    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2017.09.025
饲料营养 Feed science and technology 最新目录 | 下期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 << Previous Articles | Next Articles >>
不同品种类型玉米不同器官和全株生物产量比较
杨立杰1, 王兆凤2, 吴晓静1, 李思梦1, 刘廷俊1, 杨在宾1, 姜淑贞1
1. 山东农业大学动物科技学院, 山东省动物生物工程与疾病防治重点实验室, 泰安 271018;
2. 山东省畜牧总站, 济南 250022
A Comparison on Biological Yields of Different Organs and Whole Plant among Different Types of Maize Varieties
YANG Lijie1, WANG Zhaofeng2, WU Xiaojing1, LI Simeng1, LIU Tingjun1, YANG Zaibin1, JIANG Shuzhen1
1. Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China;
2. Shandong Provincial Animal Husbandry and Veterinary General Station, Jin'an 250022, China
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摘要 本试验旨在比较不同品种类型玉米(Zea mays)不同器官和全株的生物产量,以提高玉米定向培育的选择效率。选择32种具有代表性的玉米优良品种为试验材料,根据淀粉性质、籽实外形、成熟性质和用途4种分类方法,分别对完熟期玉米的籽实、玉米芯、苞叶、叶片、叶鞘、茎秆及全株的鲜物质、风干物质、干物质以及粗蛋白质和总能产量进行比较。每个品种选择5个地块,每个地块选取10株玉米。结果表明:玉米的籽实、玉米芯、苞叶、叶片、叶鞘、茎秆和全株的鲜物质、风干物质、干物质、粗蛋白质和总能产量不同品种类型间差异均显著(P<0.05)。根据淀粉性质、籽实外形和成熟性质分类不足以区别不同品种类型玉米的不同器官和全株生物产量(P>0.05)。按用途分类,不同品种类型玉米不同器官和全株生物产量(玉米籽实的风干物质、干物质和总能产量除外)均差异显著(P<0.05),表现为饲用玉米 > 红粒玉米 > 普通玉米 > 糯玉米。对广泛种植的普通玉米和饲用玉米进行比较,设定普通玉米产量为100.0%,则饲用玉米籽实、玉米芯、苞叶、叶片、叶鞘、茎秆和全株的鲜物质产量分别为121.9%、164.2%、175.5%、149.0%、151.7%、168.8%和149.9%;风干物质产量分别为107.9%、143.7%、155.1%、139.4%、126.1%、162.0%和129.1%;干物质产量分别为107.5%、143.4%、155.0%、139.5%、125.7%、162.0%和129.21%;粗蛋白质产量分别为119.0%、142.9%、181.5%、161.6%、122.0%、137.4%和131.7%;总能产量分别为107.7%、143.8%、155.0%、139.4%、126.1%、162.0%和129.1%。玉米籽实干物质、粗蛋白质和总能产量占玉米全株的比例,普通玉米分别为47.75%、57.87%和48.49%,饲用玉米分别为39.72%、52.36%和40.48%。由此得出,普通玉米全株饲喂是"粮改饲"的最基本的策略,而饲用玉米籽实和全株生物产量都高于普通玉米,种植饲用玉米可以增加30%左右的土地利用。
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关键词玉米   植株   粗蛋白质   总能   产量     
Abstract: The biological yields of different organs and whole plant among different types of maize varieties were compared in the present study, in order to improve the selection efficiency of maize directed cultivation. This study selected 32 representative maize varieties as test materials, according to the maize starch property, grain shape, mature property and application of four kinds of classification methods, respectively, the fresh matter, air-dry matter, dry matter, crude protein and gross energy yields of grain, corncob, bract, leaf, sheath, stem and whole plant for maize in full ripening stage made a comparative study. There were 5 plots per variety and 10 plants were selected in each plot. The results showed that the fresh matter, air-dry matter, dry matter, crude protein and gross energy yields of grain, corncob, bract, leaf, sheath, stem and whole plant had significant differences among different types of maize varieties (P<0.05). According to the classification of starch property, grain shape and mature property, not enough to distinguish the biological yields of different organs and whole plant among different types of maize varieties (P>0.05). According to the classification of application, the significant differences were found in the biological yields of different organs and whole plant (except the air-dry matter, dry matter, crude protein and gross energy yields of corn grain) among different types of maize varieties (P>0.05), which showed forage maize>red grain maize>normal maize>waxy maize. Comparison of normal maize and forage maize, assumed that normal maize to yield 100.0%, the fresh matter yields of grain, corncob, bract, leaf, sheath, stem and whole plant for forage maize were 121.9%, 164.2%, 175.5%, 149.0%, 151.7%, 168.8% and 149.9%, respectively; the dry matter yields of them were 107.9%, 143.7%, 155.1%, 139.4%, 126.1%, 162.0% and 129.1%, respectively; the dry matter yield of them were 107.5%, 143.4%, 155.0%, 139.5%, 125.7%, 162.0% and 129.21%, respectively; the crude protein yields of them were 119.0%, 142.9%, 181.5%, 161.6%, 122.0%, 137.4% and 131.7%, respectively; the gross energy yields of them were 107.7%, 143.8%, 155.0%, 139.4%, 126.1%, 162.0% and 129.1%, respectively. The percentage of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy yields of maize gain in maize whole plant, the normal maize were 47.75%, 57.87% and 48.49%, respectively, while the forage maize were 39.72%, 52.36% and 40.48%, respectively. In conclusion, whole plant feeding of normal maize is the most basic strategy of "grain to feed". The biological yields of gain and whole plant for forage maize are higher than those for normal maize, and forage maize can increase the land use around 30%.
Keywordsmaize,   plants,   crude protein,   gross energy,   biological yield     
收稿日期: 2017-03-08;
基金资助:

山东省现代农业产业技术体系生猪创新团队建设项目(SDAIT-08-04);山东省重点研发计划项目"玉米青饲生产优质猪肉和粪污还田精准化关键技术研究与集成"(2016GNC111018);山东省农业重大应用技术创新项目"全株青绿玉米生产优质猪肉技术研究"(201636);"双一流"奖补资金资助

通讯作者 杨在宾,教授,博士生导师,E-mail:yzb204@163.com;姜淑贞,副教授,硕士生导师,E-mail:shuzhen305@163.com     Email: yzb204@163.com;shuzhen305@163.com
作者简介: 杨立杰(1992-),男,山东潍坊人,硕士研究生,动物营养与饲料科学专业。E-mail:724832205@qq.com
引用本文:   
. 不同品种类型玉米不同器官和全株生物产量比较[J]. 动物营养学报, 2017,V29(9): 3220-3231
. A Comparison on Biological Yields of Different Organs and Whole Plant among Different Types of Maize Varieties[J]. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2017,V29(9): 3220-3231.
链接本文:  
http://www.chinajan.com/CN/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2017.09.025     或     http://www.chinajan.com/CN/Y2017/V29/I9/3220
 
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