动物营养学报    2021, Vol. 33 Issue (2): 913-922    PDF    
不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛生长性能、养分表观消化率、血清生化指标及瘤胃发酵参数的影响
汪成1 , 王之盛1 , 胡瑞1 , 马健1 , 曹广1 , 姚小鹤1 , 邹华围1 , 王雪莹1 , 薛白1 , 王立志1 , 彭全辉1 , 朱跃明2 , 朱潇鹏2     
1. 四川农业大学动物营养研究所, 四川省牛低碳养殖与安全生产高校重点实验室, 成都 611130;
2. 国家肉牛牦牛产业技术体系张掖综合试验站, 张掖 734000
摘要: 本试验旨在探讨不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛生长性能、养分表观消化率、血清生化指标及瘤胃发酵参数的影响。选取年龄(12月龄)、体重[(382.24±29.39) kg]相近的健康西杂(西门塔尔牛×本地黄牛)架子牛公牛120头,随机分为3组,每组40头牛。对照组饲喂基础饲粮,干酒糟组和发酵酒糟组分别饲喂用4.8%的干酒糟或发酵酒糟替换基础饲粮中部分原料配制的等能等氮饲粮。预试期7 d,正试期90 d。结果显示:1)添加干酒糟和发酵酒糟显著提高西杂牛的干物质采食量(P < 0.05),且添加发酵酒糟显著提高西杂牛的平均日增重并显著降低料重比(P < 0.05)。2)发酵酒糟组中性洗涤纤维消化率显著高于对照组和干酒糟组(P < 0.05)。3)添加干酒糟和发酵酒糟显著降低西杂牛血清尿素氮含量,且发酵酒糟组血清总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、总胆固醇含量显著高于干酒糟组和对照组(P < 0.05)。4)发酵酒糟组瘤胃液总挥发性脂肪酸、乙酸、丁酸浓度显著高于对照组和干酒糟组(P < 0.05),pH显著低于对照组和干酒糟组(P < 0.05);干酒糟组瘤胃液乙丙比最高,显著高于对照组和发酵酒糟组(P < 0.05);干酒糟组和发酵酒糟组瘤胃液氨态氮浓度显著高于对照组(P < 0.05)。由此可见,饲粮中添加4.8%干酒糟或发酵酒糟可提高西杂牛采食量;添加4.8%发酵酒糟还可促进西杂牛瘤胃发酵,提高养分表观消化率及饲料报酬;综合比较,发酵酒糟对西杂牛的促生长效果优于干酒糟。
关键词: 干酒糟    发酵酒糟    西杂牛    生长性能    瘤胃发酵    
Effects of Different Types of White Distiller's Grains on Growth Performance, Nutrient Apparent Digestibility, Serum Biochemical Indexes and Rumen Fermentation Parameters of Simmental Crossbred Cattle
WANG Cheng1 , WANG Zhisheng1 , HU Rui1 , MA Jian1 , CAO Guang1 , YAO Xiaohe1 , ZOU Huawei1 , WANG Xueying1 , XUE Bai1 , WANG Lizhi1 , PENG Quanhui1 , ZHU Yueming2 , ZHU Xiaopeng2     
1. Key Laboratory of University in Cattle Low Carbon Breeding and Safety Production in Sichuan Province, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China;
2. Zhangye Comprehensive Experimental Station of National Yak and Beef Industrial Technology System, Zhangye 734000, China
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different types of white distiller's grains on growth performance, nutrient apparent digestibility, serum biochemical indexes and rumen fermentation parameters of Simmental crossbred cattle. One hundred and twenty healthy Simmental crossbred bulls (Simmental×local yellow cattle) with similar body weight [(382.24±29.39) kg] and age (12 months old) were randomly divided into 3 groups with 40 bulls in each group. The animals in control group were fed a basal diet, and the animals in dry distiller's grains group and fermented distiller's grains group were fed equal energy equal nitrogen diets, which were prepared by replacing some raw materials in the basal diet with 4.8% dry distiller's grains or fermented distiller's grains, respectively. A 7-day adjustment period was followed by a 90-day experimental period. The results showed as follows: 1) the additions of dry distiller's grains and fermented distiller's grains significantly increased the dry matter intake of Simmental crossbred cattle. Besides, the addition of fermented distiller's grains significantly increased the average daily gain of Simmental crossbred cattle and significantly decreased the feed/gain (P < 0.05). 2) The digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in fermented distiller's grains group was significantly higher than that in control group and dry distiller's grains group (P < 0.05). 3) The additions of dry distiller's grains and fermented distiller's grains significantly reduced the serum urea nitrogen content of Simmental crossbred cattle. Moreover, the contents of serum total protein, albumin, globulin and total cholesterol in fermented distiller's grains group were significantly higher than those in dry distiller's grains group and control group (P < 0.05). 4) The concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, acetate and butyrate in rumen fluid in fermented distiller's grains group were significantly increased as compared with dry distiller's grains group and control group (P < 0.05), but the rumen fluid pH exhibited an opposite trend. The rumen fluid acetate/propionate in dry distiller's grains group was the highest, and it was significantly higher than that in control group and fermented distiller's grains group (P < 0.05). The concentration of ammonia nitrogen in rumen fluid in dry distiller's grains group and fermented distillers' grains group was significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, adding 4.8% dry distiller's grains or fermented distiller's grains into the diet can improve the feed intake of Simmental crossbred cattle; adding 4.8% fermented distiller's grains can promote the rumen fermentation, increase the nutrient digestibility and feed efficiency; compared comprehensively, the growth promotion effect of fermented distiller's grains is better than that of dry distiller's grains.
Key words: dry distiller's grains    fermented distiller's grains    Simmental crossbred cattle    growth performance    rumen fermentation    

随着养殖业的发展,我国饲料资源短缺问题愈发突出,饲料资源缺乏已成为我国养殖业面临的一大困境。开发非常规饲料是解决这一困境的有效途径,白酒糟作为一类重要的非常规饲料,产量大、营养物质丰富,具有良好的饲用价值。据统计,我国2019年白酒产量达到785.9万kL[1],依据白酒产量估算2019年我国白酒糟产量达2 115万t。研究证实酒糟饲料具有提高动物生长性能、养分表观消化率及胴体品质等作用[2-5]

目前白酒糟饲料化利用主要有鲜酒糟直接饲用、烘干饲用和微生物发酵后饲用等方式[6]。但鲜酒糟直接饲用存在诸多不足,首先,鲜酒糟中残留有大量的水分、游离醋酸及乳酸,酸度较高,极易腐败变质,造成资源浪费[7];其次,直接饲喂鲜酒糟易导致反刍动物出现瘤胃酸中毒、便秘等症状,因此鲜酒糟在反刍动物饲粮中的应用较为局限。鲜酒糟经烘干或微生物发酵后可有效改善其营养特性,并可以延长保质期,提高适用范围。白酒糟依据酿酒工艺主要分为浓香型、酱香型等,浓香型白酒在酿造时添加了大量的发酵填充剂稻壳,其酒糟纤维含量较高[6],因而多采用烘干工艺制成干酒糟(dry distiller’s grains, DDG)。研究证实干燥可以在有效降低酒糟水分含量的同时保留其他营养物质[8],此外,Reis等[2]研究证实饲喂干酒糟可提高公牛的生长性能及肉品质。酱香型酒糟营养价值较高,是生产发酵酒糟(fermented distiller’s grains, FDG)的优质原料,经过微生物发酵后酒糟中纤维被降解,蛋白质含量提高,并且发酵酒糟中还含有多种有益微生物和生长促进因子[9]。陈光吉等[10]研究发现,在饲粮中添加发酵酒糟可以显著提高牦牛的采食量、日增重及养分表观消化率。

在我国,西杂牛(即西门塔尔杂交牛)养殖范围广,养殖数量多,在西杂牛生产中运用酒糟饲料具有广阔前景,但不同类型酒糟对西杂牛的饲用效果未见报道。因此,本试验主要对比浓香型干酒糟和酱香型发酵酒糟对西杂牛生长性能、养分表观消化率、血清生化指标及瘤胃发酵参数的影响,旨在为合理利用酒糟饲料育肥西杂牛提供数据支撑。

1 材料与方法 1.1 试验材料

干酒糟由浓香型鲜酒糟烘干粉碎制成;发酵酒糟由酱香型酒糟经酿酒酵母菌发酵后干燥制成。2种类型白酒糟营养组成见表 1

表 1 2种类型白酒糟的营养组成(风干基础) Table 1 Nutritional composition of two types of white distiller's grains (air-dry basis)  
1.2 试验设计

试验选取年龄(12月龄)、体重[(382.24±29.39) kg]相近的健康西杂(西门塔尔牛×本地黄牛)架子牛公牛120头,随机分为对照组、干酒糟组、发酵酒糟组,每组4个重复,每个重复10头牛。对照组、干酒糟组、发酵酒糟组试验牛分别饲喂基础饲粮、干酒糟饲粮及发酵酒糟饲粮,3组饲粮等能等氮。预试期7 d,正试期90 d,正试期第87~89天进行消化试验。

1.3 试验饲粮

基础饲粮参照我国《肉牛饲养标准》(NY/T 815—2004)中体重400 kg、日增重1.2 kg的营养需要进行配制,精粗比为60 : 40,干酒糟饲粮及发酵酒糟饲粮是用4.8%的干酒糟或发酵酒糟替换基础饲粮中部分原料配制的等能等氮饲粮。试验饲粮组成及营养水平见表 2

表 2 试验饲粮组成及营养水平(风干基础) Table 2 Composition and nutrient levels of experimental diets (air-dry basis)  
1.4 饲养管理

本试验在张掖市万禾草畜科技开发有限责任公司牛场进行。试验开始前对所有牛只统一编号,免疫驱虫,其他消毒免疫程序按牛场饲养管理进行。牛只分栏散养,每日饲喂2次(08:30和16:00)。正试期参考预试期的采食量投喂全混合日粮,保证试验牛采食后略有剩余,牛只均自由采食和饮水。

1.5 样品采集及指标测定 1.5.1 生长性能

于正试期第1和90天晨饲前对所有牛只称重,计算正试期的平均日增重(ADG);记录每日牛只采食量,计算干物质采食量(DMI);根据ADG和DMI计算料重比(F/G)。

1.5.2 血清生化指标

于正试期第90天称重前,从每个重复中随机选择3头牛,采集尾根静脉血液2份,静置30 min后3 000 r/min离心15 min制备血清,立即-20 ℃保存。血清生化指标采用全自动生化分析仪(日立3100)测定,主要包括总蛋白(TP)、白蛋白(ALB)、葡萄糖(GLU)、尿素氮(UN)、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)含量。

1.5.3 养分表观消化率

在正试期第87~89天进行消化试验,连续3 d每6 h收集1次西杂牛粪样,收集完成后将3 d的粪样混合均匀缩样至500 g,按每100 g添加5 mL10%稀硫酸固氮。收集消化试验期新料和剩料的饲粮样,充分混合后取500 g,粪样及饲粮样65 ℃烘干至恒重,回潮24 h,粉碎过40目筛,-20 ℃保存。饲粮及粪样中干物质(DM)、粗蛋白质(CP)、中性洗涤纤维(NDF)、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)、钙(Ca)和磷(P)含量参照张丽英[11]的方法测定。使用盐酸不溶灰分(AIA)作为内源标记物测定养分表观消化率,计算公式为:

1.5.4 瘤胃发酵参数

正试期第90天晨饲前从每个重复中随机选择3头牛,用胃管式瘤胃液采样器采集瘤胃液,瘤胃液采集后经4层纱布过滤,分装于15 mL离心管,-20 ℃保存。

瘤胃液采集后立即测定瘤胃液pH,pH采用便携式pH酸度计(PHS-3B)测定。氨态氮(NH3-N)浓度采用碱性次氯酸钠-苯酚分光光度计法测定,具体步骤参照Broderick等[12]的方法。瘤胃液中微生物蛋白(MCP)浓度使用南京建成生物工程研究所生产的BCA法蛋白定量试剂盒测定,具体测定流程参照说明书进行。瘤胃液中挥发性脂肪酸(VFA)浓度使用气相色谱仪(CP-3800)测定,主要测定瘤胃液中乙酸、丙酸、丁酸浓度;总挥发性脂肪酸(TVFA)浓度为乙酸、丙酸、丁酸浓度之和,乙丙比为乙酸与丙酸浓度的比值。

1.6 数据统计与分析

试验数据经Excel 2016整理后,用SPSS 23.0统计软件进行单因子方差分析(one-way ANOVA)并以Duncan氏法进行多重比较,P < 0.05为差异显著,结果以平均值和均值标准误(SEM)表示。

2 结果与分析 2.1 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛生长性能的影响

表 3可知,发酵酒糟组的ADG显著高于对照组(P < 0.05),同时干酒糟组和发酵酒糟组的DMI显著高于对照组(P < 0.05),且发酵酒糟组的F/G显著低于干酒糟组和对照组(P < 0.05)。

表 3 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛生长性能的影响 Table 3 Effects of different types of white distiller's grains on growth performance of Simmental crossbred cattle
2.2 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛养分表观消化率的影响

表 4可知,发酵酒糟组的NDF表观消化率显著高于干酒糟组和对照组(P < 0.05),其余指标各组之间差异不显著(P>0.05)。

表 4 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛养分表观消化率的影响 Table 4 Effects of different types of white distiller's grains on nutrient apparent digestibility of Simmental crossbred cattle  
2.3 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛血清生化指标的影响

表 5可知,发酵酒糟组血清TP、ALB、GLOB、TC含量显著高于其余2组(P < 0.05);干酒糟组和发酵酒糟组血清UN含量显著低于对照组(P < 0.05);血清GLU、TG、HDL含量各组间差异不显著(P>0.05);此外,干酒糟组和发酵酒糟组血清LDL含量较对照组有升高的趋势。

表 5 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛血清生化指标的影响 Table 5 Effects of different types of white distiller's grains on serum biochemical indexes of Simmental crossbred cattle
2.4 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛瘤胃发酵参数的影响

表 6可知,发酵酒糟组瘤胃液pH显著低于对照组和干酒糟组(P < 0.05),TVFA、乙酸、丁酸浓度显著高于对照组和干酒糟组(P < 0.05),且其丙酸浓度最高。干酒糟组及发酵酒糟组瘤胃液NH3-N浓度显著高于对照组(P < 0.05),且干酒糟组瘤胃液乙丙比显著高于对照组(P < 0.05)。

表 6 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛瘤胃发酵参数的影响 Table 6 Effects of different types of white distiller's grains on rumen fermentation parameters of Simmental crossbred cattle
3 讨论 3.1 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛生长性能的影响

由本试验结果可知,酒糟饲料有助于提高西杂牛的DMI和ADG,这与张旺宏等[13]研究结果相一致,袁鑫等[14]也证实饲粮中添加7%或14%的白酒糟可提高羔羊的生长性能。采食量是影响动物生长性能的重要指标,采食量受适口性、饲养管理、饲养环境等多种因素的影响[15]。在相同的饲养管理与环境下,含有酒糟的饲粮的采食量更高可能是因为酒糟具有独特的气味,改善了饲粮的适口性,从而促进动物采食。本试验结果还证实发酵酒糟组牛只的F/G显著降低,陈光吉等[10]在舍饲牦牛饲粮中添加9.25%的发酵白酒糟也发现牦牛的ADG提高,F/G降低,究其原因可能是发酵后的饲料中纤维结构发生改变,更利于消化吸收[16],同时发酵饲料中含有多种有益微生物和次生代谢物,这些微生物和次生代谢物进入体内可以改善肠道微生态[17],进而促进机体消化吸收,提高饲料利用效率。

3.2 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛养分表观消化率的影响

养分表观消化率是影响动物生长性能的重要因素之一,其高低受饲料可消化性、饲粮组成、动物机体状况等多种因素的影响。本研究发现发酵酒糟显著提高了西杂牛的NDF表观消化率,这与陈光吉等[10]的研究结果一致,彭忠利等[18]利用发酵白酒糟饲喂川中黑山羊也证实发酵酒糟有助于促进NDF的表观消化率。酒糟发酵过程中微生物会产生大量的纤维素酶,使酒糟纤维被降解更容易消化,同时发酵酒糟中的纤维素酶有利于提高瘤胃外源纤维素酶活性[10];其次有研究证实饲喂一定比例的酒糟还有助于改善瘤胃微生物的生长环境,使纤维分解菌分泌酶的能力提高[19],从而促进瘤胃对纤维的降解。

3.3 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛血清生化指标的影响

血清生化指标能够综合反映动物机体的消化、代谢及健康状况[20]。本试验结果显示发酵酒糟组血清TP、ALB、GLOB含量显著高于对照组,同时干酒糟组和发酵酒糟组血清UN含量显著低于对照组。血清TP、ALB、GLOB含量的变化可反映动物体内蛋白质消化代谢及生长发育状况,ALB可参与机体组织修复和能量供应,GLOB在机体体液免疫中发挥重要作用;UN是蛋白质代谢的终产物,主要来源于瘤胃氮吸收,可随尿液排出体外,血清UN含量较低可减少机体氮损失,有利于机体氮沉积[21]。上述结果表明发酵酒糟可能对提升机体蛋白质合成代谢及体液免疫有一定作用。孙国强等[22]研究也表明在精料中添加部分酒糟可降低氮的排泄量,可能是因为酒糟中含有较多过瘤胃蛋白且蛋白质利用效率更高[23]。本研究还证实2个酒糟组血清LDL、HDL、TC含量均高于对照组,且发酵酒糟组血清TC含量与对照组的差异达到显著水平。杨春红等[24]在黔北麻羊精料中添加7%或14%的白酒糟,结果发现,白酒糟提高了血液中LDL含量。而TC、LDL及HDL含量的提高表明酒糟饲料有助于提高机体对脂类的代谢[25]

3.4 不同类型白酒糟对西杂牛瘤胃发酵参数的影响

反刍动物主要依赖瘤胃发酵获取营养物质,瘤胃发酵状况变化将直接影响动物机体的消化吸收能力,进而影响反刍动物的生长或生产性能。瘤胃液pH是反映瘤胃发酵情况最直观的指标,维持适宜的pH对瘤胃发酵至关重要,瘤胃液正常pH在5.5~7.5波动[26]。本试验中各组瘤胃液pH均处于正常范围内,但发酵酒糟组pH显著低于其余2组,这可能与发酵酒糟在瘤胃中更容易产生有机酸有关。有机酸动态平衡状态与瘤胃酸度密切相关,本次试验结果也显示发酵酒糟组瘤胃乙酸、丁酸浓度显著高于其余2组。杜瑞平等[27]在绵羊上的研究也证实发酵酒糟可以促进瘤胃产生更多的乙酸和丁酸,从而使瘤胃液pH下降。而乙酸是合成脂肪酸的前体物质,发酵酒糟组瘤胃液乙酸浓度更高,对增强机体脂肪生成具有一定作用,血清脂质代谢相关指标浓度升高也证实了脂类代谢有所加强。本试验还发现,发酵酒糟组瘤胃液TVFA浓度显著高于其余2组,VFA可为反刍动物机体提供70%~80%的能量[28],这说明含发酵酒糟饲粮可为机体提供更多的可消化能,从而有利于提高增重;同时干酒糟组瘤胃液乙丙比显著高于对照组,呈干酒糟组>发酵酒糟组>对照组的趋势。可能是因为发酵酒糟组西杂牛采食量高、纤维易消化,使得瘤胃微生物获得更多发酵底物,从而有利于VFA生成。此外,发酵酒糟组的NDF表观消化率更高,也反映其碳水化合物的利用效率更佳。但酒糟饲料中纤维含量高,因此发酵更易生成乙酸,而酒糟经发酵后,其中的纤维部分被微生物分解生成非纤维性碳水化合物[29],有利于瘤胃发酵向丙酸型发酵转变。瘤胃NH3-N主要由饲粮中粗蛋白质、非蛋白氮等含氮物质发酵产生,NH3-N浓度在一定程度上可以反映瘤胃对含氮物质降解、利用及排出之间所达到的平衡状况,维持适宜的NH3-N浓度对瘤胃微生物的生长十分重要[30]。本次试验中各组西杂牛瘤胃液NH3-N浓度都处于适宜的范围内[31],但干酒糟组和发酵酒糟组瘤胃液NH3-N浓度显著高于对照组,这与陈光吉等[10]研究结果相似,可能与干酒糟和发酵酒糟提高了西杂牛的DMI,进而增加了含氮物质的摄入有关。

4 结论

综上所述,在西杂牛架子牛阶段饲粮中添加4.8%干酒糟或发酵酒糟均可提高西杂牛的干物质采食量;添加4.8%发酵酒糟还可促进西杂牛的瘤胃发酵,提高养分表观消化率,进而提高西杂牛的饲料转化率和生长性能;综合分析试验结果,发酵酒糟对西杂牛的促生长效果优于干酒糟。

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