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动物营养学报 2017, Vol. 29 Issue (9) :3120-3131    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2017.09.013
反刍与草食动物营养 Ruminant and herbivore nutrition 最新目录 | 下期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 << Previous Articles | Next Articles >>
热应激对不同品种(系)青年肉牛生产性能、营养物质表观消化率及血液生化指标的影响
蒲启建, 王之盛, 彭全辉, 张灿, 景小平, 胡瑞, 邹华围
四川农业大学动物营养研究所, 牛低碳养殖与安全生产重点实验室, 雅安 625014
Effects of Heat Stress on Performance, Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Blood Biochemical Indices of Different Breeds of Young Beef Cattle
PU Qijian, WANG Zhisheng, PENG Quanhui, ZHANG Can, JING Xiaoping, HU Rui, ZOU Huawei
Animal Nutrition Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Culture and Safety Production in Cattle in Sichuan, Ya'an 625014, China
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摘要 本试验旨在研究热应激对不同品种(系)青年肉牛生产性能、营养物质表观消化率及血液生化指标的影响,探究不同品种(系)肉牛的耐热性差异。选取体重[(185.89±14.02)kg]相近、健康的青年西杂牛(西门塔尔牛×宣汉黄牛)、地方黄牛(宣汉黄牛)和犏牛(娟姗牛×麦洼牦牛)各6头为研究对象,试验期间不同品种(系)的青年肉牛饲喂相同饲粮。试验时间为2015年4-9月,预试期7 d,正试期180 d。结果表明:1)试验牛舍5-8月温湿度指数(THI)高于72,属于热应激期,且显著高于4月(热应激发生前)和9月(热应激发生后)(P<0.05);热应激环境导致各试验牛呼吸频率和直肠温度显著升高(P<0.05)。试验期间犏牛呼吸频率和直肠温度显著高于西杂牛和地方黄牛(P<0.05)。2)热应激期内西杂牛、地方黄牛和犏牛单位体重干物质采食量均有不同程度降低,以6月为最低,均较4月显著降低(P<0.05),且降低幅度为犏牛>西杂牛>地方黄牛。西杂牛、地方黄牛和犏牛的平均日增重(ADG)均在6月最低,分别较4月降低了27.62%(P<0.05)、10.81%(P>0.05)和46.15%(P<0.05);西杂牛的ADG在4-7月显著高于犏牛(P<0.05)。西杂牛和犏牛的料重比(F/G)以6月为最高,分别较4月升高了63.01%(P<0.05)和89.03%(P<0.05);地方黄牛的F/G在9月最高,较4月升高了53.12%(P<0.05)。3)热应激期内西杂牛、地方黄牛和犏牛的粗蛋白质(CP)表观消化率均有不同程度降低,且7月均较4月显著降低(P<0.05);西杂牛7月的粗脂肪(EE)表观消化率较4月显著降低(P<0.05),而热应激对地方黄牛和犏牛的EE表观消化率无显著影响(P>0.05);热应激期内犏牛中性洗涤纤维(NDF)(6月)和酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)的表观消化率(5-8月)较热应激发生前显著降低(P<0.05);热应激期内西杂牛和犏牛钙(Ca)(西杂牛:6-8月;犏牛:5-8月)和磷(P)的表观消化率(西杂牛:6-7月;犏牛:5-8月)较热应激发生前显著降低(P<0.05)。试验期间,不同品种(系)牛的CP表观消化率无显著差异(P>0.05),西杂牛和地方黄牛的EE表观消化率显著高于犏牛(P<0.05),地方黄牛的ADF表观消化率显著高于西杂牛和犏牛(P<0.05),西杂牛和地方黄牛的P表观消化率显著高于犏牛(P<0.05)。此外,5-9月地方黄牛的Ca表观消化率显著高于犏牛(P<0.05)。4)西杂牛、地方黄牛和犏牛血清中葡萄糖(GLU)浓度均以6月最低,较4月分别降低了16.82%(P<0.05)、12.82%(P>0.05)和15.90%(P<0.05);热应激期间各试验牛血清中非酯化脂肪酸(NEFA)浓度均以7月最低,显著低于4月(P<0.05);试验期间西杂牛和地方黄牛血清中尿素氮(UN)浓度随年龄的增大呈先升高后降低变化,而犏牛血清中UN浓度则持续升高;6-9月各试验牛血清肌酐(CRE)浓度均显著高于4、5月(P<0.05),且7-9月犏牛血清CRE浓度显著高于地方黄牛(P<0.05)。综上所述,热应激导致不同品种(系)青年肉牛生产性能降低、饲粮营养物质消化率降低,地方黄牛的耐热应激能力强于西杂牛和犏牛,犏牛对热应激最敏感。
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关键词热应激   肉牛   生产性能   营养物质表观消化率   血液生化指标     
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on performance, nutrient apparent digestibility and blood biochemical indices of different breeds of young beef cattle, in order to explore the heat resistance difference of different breeds of beef cattle. Six individuals of Simmental crossbred cattle (Simmental cattle×Xuanhan yellow cattle), indigenous yellow cattle (Xuanhan yellow cattle) and cattle yak (Maiwa yak×Jersey cattle) were chosen based on similar body weight[(185.89±14.02) kg]. Animals were fed with the same diet and feeding experiment lasted 187 days, including 7-days adaption period and 180-days test period. The experiment from April 2015 to September 2015. The results showed as follows:1) the temperature humidity index (THI) of barn was above 72 from May to August and this stage belonged to heat stress (HS) period, and the THI of HS period was higher than April (pre HS) and September (after HS) (P<0.05). During the HS period, the respiratory frequency and rectal temperature were significantly increased (P<0.05) for all experimental animals. The respiratory frequency and rectal temperature of cattle yak was significantly higher than those of Simmental crossbred cattle and indigenous yellow cattle in the period of experiment (P<0.05). 2) The dry matter intake per body weight of Simmental crossbred cattle, indigenous yellow cattle and cattle yak was decreased in HS period, and the lowest value in June and significantly lower than April (P<0.05), the degree of decreased was cattle yak>Simmental crossbred cattle>indigenous yellow cattle. The lowest values of average daily gains of Simmental crossbred cattle, indigenous yellow cattle and cattle yak were all in June, and decreased by 27.62% (P<0.05), 10.81% (P>0.05) and 46.15% (P<0.05) as contrasted April, respectively. The average daily gain of Simmental crossbred cattle was significantly higher than that of cattle yak from April to July (P<0.05). The highest values of feed/gain of Simmental crossbred cattle and cattle yak in June, and increased by 63.01% (P<0.05) and 89.03% (P<0.05)as contrasted April, respectively; the highest value of feed/gain of indigenous yellow cattle in September, and increased by 53.12% as contrasted to April (P<0.05). 3) The apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) of Simmental crossbred cattle, indigenous yellow cattle and cattle yak was different degrees of reduction in HS period and significantly decreased in July compared with April (P<0.05). The apparent digestibility of ether extract (EE) of Simmental crossbred cattle was significantly decreased in July compared with April (P<0.05), but the HS had no significant effects on the apparent digestibility of EE for indigenous yellow cattle and cattle yak (P>0.05). The apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (June) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) (from May to August) of cattle yak was significantly decreased in HS period compared with pre HS (P<0.05). The apparent digestibility of calcium (Ca) of Simmental crossbred cattle (from June to August) and cattle yak (from May to August) was significantly decreased in HS period compared with pre HS (P<0.05), and the apparent digestibility of phosphorus (P) of Simmental crossbred cattle (from June to July) and cattle yak (from May to August) was significantly decreased in HS period compared with pre HS, too (P<0.05). During the experiment period, the apparent digestibility of CP had no significant difference among the three breeds of young beef cattle (P>0.05), the apparent digestibility of EE of Simmental crossbred cattle and indigenous yellow cattle was significantly higher than that of cattle yak (P<0.05), the apparent digestibility of ADF of indigenous yellow cattle was significantly higher than that of Simmental crossbred cattle and cattle yak (P<0.05), and the apparent digestibility of P of Simmental crossbred cattle and indigenous yellow cattle was significantly higher than that of cattle yak (P<0.05). Moreover, the apparent digestibility of Ca of indigenous yellow cattle was significantly higher than that of cattle yak from May to September (P<0.05). 4) Serum glucose (GLU) concentration of Simmental crossbred cattle, indigenous yellow cattle and cattle yak had the lowest value in June and decreased by 16.82% (P<0.05), 12.82% (P>0.05) and 15.90% (P<0.05) compared with April, respectively. For all the experimental cattle, the non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) concentration had the lowest value in July and significantly lower than that in April (P<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen (UN) concentration of Simmental crossbred cattle and indigenous yellow cattle was increased at first and then decreased in the experiment period with the age increasing, while the serum UN concentration of cattle yak was continually increased. Serum creatinine (CRE) concentration of all experimental animals in June to September was significantly higher than that in April and May (P<0.05), and the serum CRE concentration of cattle yak was significantly higher than that of indigenous yellow cattle from July to September (P<0.05). In conclusion, the performance and apparent digestibility of nutrients of different breeds of young beef cattle are decreased under heat stress condition. Indigenous yellow cattle are more tolerance of heat stress than Simmental crossbred cattle and cattle yak, and cattle yak are more sensitive to heat stress.
Keywordsheat stress,   beef cattle,   performance,   nutrient apparent digestibility,   blood biochemical indices     
收稿日期: 2017-02-20;
基金资助:

国家肉牛牦牛产业技术体系资金资助(CARS-38)

通讯作者 王之盛,教授,博士生导师,E-mail:zswangsicau@126.com     Email: zswangsicau@126.com
作者简介: 蒲启建(1990-),男,四川成都人,硕士研究生,从事反刍动物营养与饲料科学研究。E-mail:penqiji@live.com
引用本文:   
. 热应激对不同品种(系)青年肉牛生产性能、营养物质表观消化率及血液生化指标的影响[J]. 动物营养学报, 2017,V29(9): 3120-3131
. Effects of Heat Stress on Performance, Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Blood Biochemical Indices of Different Breeds of Young Beef Cattle[J]. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2017,V29(9): 3120-3131.
链接本文:  
http://www.chinajan.com/CN/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2017.09.013     或     http://www.chinajan.com/CN/Y2017/V29/I9/3120
 
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