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动物营养学报 2019, Vol. 31 Issue (4) :1655-1665    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2019.04.023
反刍与草食动物营养 Ruminant and herbivore nutrition 最新目录 | 下期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 << Previous Articles | Next Articles >>
酸化乳对犊牛生长性能和血清免疫指标的影响
殷术鑫, 曲永利, 高岩, 辛小月, 王璐, 张帅
黑龙江八一农垦大学动物科技学院, 大庆 163319
Effects of Acidified Milk on Growth Performance and Serum Immune Indexes of Holstein Calves
YIN Shuxin, QU Yongli, GAO Yan, XIN Xiaoyue, WANG Lu, ZHANG Shuai
College of Animal Science and Technology, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, China
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摘要 本试验旨在研究饲喂酸化乳对犊牛生长性能和血清免疫指标的影响。本试验采用完全随机试验设计,选择3日龄左右、体重(40±5)kg的健康荷斯坦犊牛20头,随机分为2组,即酸化乳组和巴氏杀菌乳组,每组10头。酸化乳组饲喂酸化乳,巴氏杀菌乳组饲喂巴氏杀菌乳,2组均自由采食颗粒料,试验期共180 d,在试验第60天时断奶。每天记录犊牛的采食量,于犊牛生长期的第7、30、60、90、180天分别测量体尺、体重,计算平均日增重,同时采血用于测定血清免疫指标。结果表明:1)酸化乳组乳尿素氮含量极显著高于巴氏杀菌乳组(P<0.01),乳大肠杆菌、总菌数量显著低于巴氏杀菌乳组(P<0.05),乳糖率、乳脂率和乳蛋白率组间差异不显著(P>0.05)。2)第31~50天时,酸化乳组犊牛液体饲料平均日采食量极显著高于巴氏杀菌乳组(P<0.01);第61~90天时,酸化乳组犊牛固体饲料平均日采食量极显著高于巴氏杀菌乳组(P<0.01)。3)第60~180天时,酸化乳组犊牛平均日增重显著高于巴氏杀菌乳组(P<0.05)。第60天时,酸化乳组犊牛体直长、体高和管围均显著高于巴氏杀菌乳组(P<0.05);第90天时,犊牛体直长、体斜长、体高和管围均显著高于巴氏杀菌乳组(P<0.05);第180天时,酸化乳组犊牛体直长、体斜长和体高均极显著高于巴氏杀菌乳组(P<0.01)。4)第60天时,酸化乳组血清免疫球蛋白A(IgA)含量显著高于巴氏杀菌乳组(P<0.05);第90天时,酸化乳组血清免疫球蛋白G(IgG)含量极显著高于巴氏杀菌乳组(P<0.01);第90和180天时,酸化乳组血清免疫球蛋白M(IgM)含量显著高于巴氏杀菌乳组(P<0.05)。第30天时,巴氏杀菌乳组血清肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)和白细胞介素-1β(IL-1β)含量均极显著高于酸化乳组(P<0.01),血清白细胞介素-6(IL-6)含量显著高于酸化乳组(P<0.05);第60天时,巴氏杀菌乳组血清IL-1β含量极显著高于酸化乳组(P<0.01),血清IL-6含量显著高于酸化乳组(P<0.05);第90天时,巴氏杀菌乳组血清IL-1β含量显著高于酸化乳组(P<0.05)。综上所述,利用甲酸酸化牛乳对牛乳成分影响不大,可抑制牛乳中有害细菌生长,改善适口性,提高犊牛采食量,改善机体免疫力。
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关键词荷斯坦犊牛   酸化乳   生长性能   血清免疫指标     
Abstract: This experiment was aimed to study the effects of feeding acidified milk on growth performance and serum immune indexed of calves. A randomized comparative experiment design was adopted. Twenty healthy Holstein female calves at 3 days of age with the body weight of (40±5) kg were selected from a large-scale dairy farm, and were divided into 2 groups with 10 calves for each group. The control group fed pasteurized milk, the test group fed acidic milk, and both groups fed pellet diets ad libitum. The test period was 180 days (weaning at day 60). Feed intake of calves was recorded every day. Body weight of calves was measured at days 7, 30, 60, 90 and 180 of growth period, and daily weight gain was calculated. Meanwhile, blood was collected for measuring serum immunologic indexes. The results showed as follows:1) the milk urea nitrogen content of acidified milk group was significantly higher than that of pasteurized milk group (P<0.01), the number of Escherichia coli and total bacteria was significantly lower than that of pasteurized milk group (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in lactose percentage, milk fat percentage and milk protein percentage between groups (P>0.05). 2) At days 31 to 50, the liquid feed average daily feed intake of acidified milk group was significantly higher than that of pasteurized milk group (P<0.01); at days 61 to 90, the solid feed average daily feed intake of acidified milk group was significantly higher than that of pasteurized milk group (P<0.01). 3) At days 60 to 180, the average daily gain of acidified milk group was significantly increased compared with pasteurized milk group (P<0.05). At day 60, the body straight length, body height and cannon bone circumference of acidified milk group were significantly higher than those of pasteurized milk group (P<0.05); at day 90, body straight length, body oblique length, body height and cannon bone circumference were significantly higher than those of pasteurized milk group (P<0.05); at day 180, the body straight length, body oblique length and body height of acidified milk group were significantly increased compared with pasteurized milk group (P<0.01). 4) At day 60, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) A content of acidified milk group was significantly higher than that of pasteurized milk group (P<0.05); at day 90, serum IgG content of acidified milk group was significantly higher than that of pasteurized milk group (P<0.01); at days 90 and 180, serum IgM content of acidified milk group was significantly higher than that of pasteurized milk group (P<0.05). At day 30, the contents of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β of pasteurized milk group were significantly higher than those of acidified milk group (P<0.01), and the content of serum IL-6 was significantly higher than that of acidified milk group (P<0.05); at day 60, the content of serum IL-1β of pasteurized milk group was significantly higher than that of acidified milk group (P<0.01), and the content of serum IL-6 was significantly higher than that of acidified milk group (P<0.05); at day 90, the content of IL-1β of pasteurized milk group was significantly higher than that of acidified milk group (P<0.05). In summary, acidification of formic acid milk has little effect on the composition of milk, can inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria in milk, improve the palatability, feed intake and immunity.
KeywordsHolstein calves,   acidified milk,   growth performance,   serum immune indexes     
收稿日期: 2018-09-09;
基金资助:

垦区奶牛提质增效关键技术研究与示范(HNK135-04-02)

通讯作者 曲永利,教授,博士生导师,E-mail:Ylqu007@126.com     Email: Ylqu007@126.com
作者简介: 殷术鑫(1996-),男,山东威海人,硕士研究生,从事反刍动物营养研究。E-mail:784426936@qq.com
引用本文:   
. 酸化乳对犊牛生长性能和血清免疫指标的影响[J]. 动物营养学报, 2019,V31(4): 1655-1665
. Effects of Acidified Milk on Growth Performance and Serum Immune Indexes of Holstein Calves[J]. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2019,V31(4): 1655-1665.
链接本文:  
http://www.chinajan.com/CN/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2019.04.023     或     http://www.chinajan.com/CN/Y2019/V31/I4/1655
 
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