15 July 2014, Volume 26 Issue 7
    

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  • HUANG Chunhong, XIAO Tiaoyi, HU Yi, ZHAO Yurong, LIU Qiaolin
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1715-1722. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.001
    Abstract ( ) Download PDF ( ) HTML Knowledge map Save
    To supply enough aquatic products and improve economic benefits, high density cultivation and refined formula feed are extensively used in fish farming in China. Under this intensive culture condition, on one hand, the growth performance of fish promotes greatly; on the other hand, the anti-stress ability and death rate of fish turn worse as fish is cultured, fished and transported. Meanwhile, lipid accumulation in the whole fish body and liver becomes more and more serious, which leads to decrease fish quality and damage liver function. Among them, fatty liver disease in fish which is characterized of excessive lipid deposition in the liver has aroused wide attention. In order to benefit diagnosis and precaution of fatty liver disease, as well as healthy culture of fish, the definition, diagnosis methods, nutrient factors, pathogenic mechanism of fatty liver disease in aquaculture fish all were reviewed and problems in fatty liver disease study of aquaculture fish were discussed in this paper.
  • CHEN Hao, MAO Xiangbing, CHEN Daiwen, YU bing, TANG jun
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1723-1727. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.002
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    Recently, many in vivo and in vitro experiments have shown that the fat metabolism can be regulated by leucine in mammals, especially rodents and humans. Both leucine supplementation and deprivation can affect fat metabolism via different mechanisms that involved in the regulation of enzyme and gene expression, and the central nervous system. Therefore, this paper reviewed the effects of leucine on fat metabolism and related mechanisms that leucine regulates fat metabolism in mammals.
  • Molecular Nutrition
  • CUI Yaoming, DONG Xiaofang, TONG Jianming
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1728-1737. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.003
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    There are abundant residue product resources in China, but most of them still have not been utilized scientifically and reasonably as well as they could be. This paper reviewed research progress of application of more than 10 kinds of residue products from brewing, fruit and other processing as feed resource in China, to provide a reference for rational utilization of the residue products resource, reducing environmental pollution and developing feed resources.
  • JIANG Ming, RAN Maoliang, CHEN Bin, YANG Anqi, LI Zhi
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1738-1745. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.004
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    Autophagy is a very conservative catabolism process in the biological evolution, in which cells use double membrance vacuole packaging cytoplasmic contents to form autophagy, and then the autophagy fuses together with the lysosomes to degrade cytoplasmic contents and organs, maintaining and updating the animals' organelles. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have two forms: mTORC1 and mTORC2, and mTOR can regulate cell growth and proliferation according to the levels of nutrition, energy and growth factor. This review summarizes the function and regulatory mechanism of mTOR, autophagy and the contact between mTOR and autophagy.
  • Swine Nutrition
  • CAI Qinghe, CHEN Yuanqing, XI Lin, WANG Yizhen, WANG Guoshui, MAO Huimin, GUO Baohai, WANG Litong, JI Cheng
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1746-1752. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.005
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    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reducing dietary crude protein level and supplement with compound enzymes on growth performance, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism of finishing pigs under high temperature conditions. One hundred and eighty crossed finishing pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Large White) with an average body weight of (74.09±2.72) kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (5 replicates per group and 12 pigs per replicate) based on their weight and sex. Pigs in each group were randomly fed one of the three diets: regular crude protein level (16.53%) diet (control group), low crude protein level (15.14%) diet (experimental group Ⅰ), and low crude protein level diet (15.14%)+0.02% compound enzymes (experimental group Ⅱ), respectively. The experiment lasted for 45 d. The results showed as follows: compared with control group, 1) there were no significant differences in average daily grain, feed/gain, and apparent digestibility of nitrogen and phosphorus in experimental groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ (P>0.05); 2) the nitrogen excretion amount in experimental groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the phosphorus excretion amount in experimental group Ⅱ was significantly decreased (P<0.05); 3) experimental groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ had lower serum urea nitrogen content (P<0.05). These results indicate that low crude protein level diets supplemented with the compound enzymes under high temperature conditions have no significant effect on the growth performance of pigs, while significantly decrease the serum urea nitrogen content and the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion amount.
  • XIE Chunyan, LI Jun, WU Xin, ZHANG Tianyong, LIAO Hui, GAO Tianzeng, YIN Yulong
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1753-1759. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.006
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    To study the effects of dynamic nutrition in one day on growth performance, blood physiology and biochemistry indexes of growing pigs, 42 pigs (half castrated boars and half sows) with similar body weight of (20.52±1.78) kg were randomly assigned into 3 groups according to body weight and sex. Three corn-soybean diets with similar digestive energy and different CP levels were formulated: basal diet (CP 21.04%), high CP level diet (CP 18.11%) and low CP level diet (CP 15.29%). The pigs in the control group were fed the basal diet in all day, those in the high-low CP group were fed high CP diet for breakfast, basal diet for lunch and low CP diet for supper, while those in the low-high CP group were fed low CP diet for breakfast, basal diet for lunch and high CP diet for supper. The experiment lasted for 25 days. Blood samples of 6 pigs selected from each group were obtained on day 25, and to examine the serum biochemical indices and plasma free amino acid contents. The results showed that compared with the control group, the average daily gain in the high-low CP group was significantly increased by 9.97% (P<0.05) and that in the low-high CP group had an increasing trend (P>0.05); in the high-low CP group and low-high CP group, serum glutamyltranspeptidase activity was significantly decreased (P<0.05), serum glutamic-oxal (o) acetic transaminase (AST) activity was increased by 35.1% and 13.1% (P>0.05), respectively, and alanine transarninase (ALT)/AST was decreased by 26.12% and 24.63% (P>0.05), respectively; the plasma contents of 3 kinds of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) including Val, Ile and Leu tended to decrease in the high-low CP group (P>0.05), while those in the low-high CP group tended to increase (P>0.05); compared with the high-low CP group, all the three kinds of plasma BCAA contents were significantly increased in the low-high CP group (P<0.05); and plasma Ser content was significantly decreased in both the two experimental groups (P<0.05). These findings suggest that dynamic nutrition affects the growth performance and blood biochemistry indexes, such as the amino acid contents of pigs under the condition of the same total feed intake and nutrition in one day.
  • Poultry Nutrition
  • WANG Baowei, WANG Di, GE Wenhua, ZHANG Ming, JIA Yuhui, CHENG Fansheng
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1760-1768. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.007
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    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of vitamin D3 on serum biochemical parameters, immune function and vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA expression level of Qingnonghui geese aged from 1 to 4 weeks, and to find the appropriate supplemental level of vitamin D3 in diets of geese. A total of 360 Qingnonghui geese (one-day-old) were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates per group and 10 geese per replicate. Geese in group Ⅰ (control group) were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and geese in groups Ⅱ to Ⅵ were fed the basal diets supplemented with 200, 400, 800, 1 600 and 3 200 IU/kg vitamin D3, respectively. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks. The results showed as follows: 1) the contents of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3 in serum in groups Ⅴ and Ⅵ were significantly higher than those in group Ⅰ (P<0.05), while there were no significant effects on the contents of calcium binding protein, bone gla protein, calcitonin and parathormone in serum among all groups (P>0.05). 2) The hymus index in group Ⅲ was significantly higher than that in other groups (P<0.05), while there were no significant effects on the spleen index, bursa of Fabricius index and serum lysozyme activity among all groups (P>0.05). 3) The bird flu antibody titer at pre-immune and immune after 7 days in group Ⅳ were significantly higher than that in group Ⅰ (P<0.05), and the VDR mRNA expression level in group Ⅳ were significantly higher than that in other groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In conclusion, dietary supplemented with 200 to 800 IU/kg vitamin D3 can increase the serum biochemical parameters, immune function and VDR mRNA expression level of geese aged from 1 to 4 weeks.
  • YANG Fumin, WEN Pengcheng, LI Chenxi
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1769-1779. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.008
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    This experiment was conducted to study the correlation between muscle fiber structure and meat quality traits of blue peacock. Twenty-four healthy 30-month-old blue peacock and Sanhuang chickens (control group) were selected, half male and half female, using the methods of paraffin section, hematoxylin-eosin staining, microscope images and transmission electron microscopy to study the muscle fiber structure and meat quality traits in back, neck, wing, leg and chest of blue peacock, and analyzed the correlation between muscle fiber structure and meat quality traits. The results showed as follows: 1) the muscle fiber proportion in different parts of female blue peacock was lower than that of male blue peacock, the muscle fiber proportion in neck was the highest, while the muscle fiber proportion in leg was the lowest. 2) There was no significant difference in the average muscle fiber diameter between female and male blue peacock (P>0.05), however, there was significant difference in different parts (P0.05). The muscle water-loss rate in wing and chest were significantly lower than that in back and leg of male blue peacock (P<0.05), and the muscle water-loss rate in leg was significantly lower than that in chest of female Sanhuang chickens (P<0.05). 4) The muscle fiber diameter had significant positive correlation with muscle fiber area and shearing force (P<0.01), and had significant negative correlation with muscle fiber density, water-loss rate and pH24 (P<0.01), and had significant positive and negative correlation with muscle fiber proportion and pH1 (P<0.05). The muscle fiber density had significant negative correlation with shearing force, muscle fiber diameter and muscle fiber area (P<0.01), and had significant positive correlation with water-loss rate, pH1 and pH24 (P<0.01). The muscle fiber proportion had significant negative correlation with sarcomere length (P<0.01). In conclusion, the correlation between muscle fiber structure and meat quality traits of blue peacock is primarily confirmed in this paper.
  • YANG Jiajun, QIAN Kun, ZHANG Wei, XU Yueying
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1780-1786. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.009
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    This study was conducted to research the effects of different ratios of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis on performance, anti-oxidation property and cecal microflora of Partridge shank chicken. The purpose of this study was to get the best supplemental ratio. Six hundred Partridge shank chickens were randomly allocated into 6 groups with 4 replicates of 25 chickens each. Chickens in control group fed a basal diet; the other 5 groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with different ratios of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. The proportions of each group were 0.50%:0.50%,0.33%:0.66%,0.25%:0.75%,0.66%:0.33%, and 0.75%:0.25%, respectively. Experimental period was 56 days. The results indicated that the body weight and average daily gain of chicken in group Ⅴ were significantly increased compared with the other groups (P<0.05), the average daily feed intake and ratio of feed to gain in group Ⅴ were significantly decreased compared with the other groups (P<0.05), and the mortality of group Ⅴ was the lowest (P<0.05). In group Ⅴ, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) abilities in plasma were significantly improved (P<0.05), and the content of malon dialdehyde (MDA) in plasma was significantly declined (P<0.05). When the compound Bacillus in ratio of 0.66%:0.33% supplementation, the number of Lactobacillus in cecum was significantly increased (P<0.05), and the number of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus was significantly declined than those in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, with 0.66%:0.33% compound Bacillus supplemented, the performance and anti-oxidation property are significantly improve, and intestinal microflora is enhanced, then mortality can be declined.
  • LI Li, XU Shengwei, LIANG Mingzhen
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1787-1795. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.010
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    In order to research the growth law of Guixiang chicken, eight hundred and ten 1-day-old hens of Guixiang chicken were randomly selected. According to relevant data reports and production practice experience, they were divided into three stages-fledging stage (1 to 4 weeks of age), growing stage (5 to 13 weeks of age) and fattening stage (14 to 17 weeks of age) for feeding. The body weight of Guixiang chicken from 1 to 17 weeks of age was measured. Three models (Logistic, Gompertz and Bertalanffy models) were used to fit the growth curve of Guixiang chicken, and the fitting results were analyzed and compared. The results showed that the best fitting for weight change during all growth period of Guixiang chicken was Bertalanffy model and there should make each week body weight forecasted by Bertalanffy model as guidance in production. But to forecast each stage important growth inflection point, the Logistic model was more accurate. The inflection point weeks of age of Guixiang chicken at three stages which forecasted by Logistic model were 3.98, 9.30 and 12.17 weeks of age, respectively. Therefore, it should be divided into four stages in production and provide the corresponding nutrient levels of diets in different growth stages in order to satisfy its growth and development and to ensure the best economic benefits.
  • YU Xiaoqiong, LIU Ranran, ZHAO Guiping, ZHENG Maiqing, LI Peng, WEN Jie
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1796-1806. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.011
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    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal folate supplemental level for breeding chickens on hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression and methylation in offspring during embryonic development. Ninety 120-day-old Beijing-you chickens with similar body weight were randomly selected and divided into 3 groups with 30 replicates in each group and each replicate contained 1 chicken, and fed in single cages. Chickens were fed corn-soybean based diet (folic acid 0.53 mg/kg) supplemented with 0 (control group), 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg folate for 90 days, respectively. The eggs were collected and hatched when the laying rate rose to the peak. The livers were collected on days 16 and 19 of embryonic development as well as at hatching. Folate concentrations in feed and egg were determined by competitive protein binding radioassay kits. The mRNA expression levels of several hepatic lipogenesis genes were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Bisulfite sequencing-polymerase chain reaction (BSP) and semi-nested polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the CpG methylation degree at the promoter region of sterol regulator element binding protein (SREBP-1c) ranging from -789 to -466 bp and fatty acid synthase (FAS) ranging from -159 to +143 bp in liver. The results showed as follows: adding 2.5 mg/kg folate in the diet had make egg folate content 81.92% higher than that in control group (P0.05). Folate supplementation significantly decreased the transcript abundance of the SREBP-1c among groups, besides, the rates in methylation of CpG sites in SREBP-1c among three periods were decreased by 8.54%, 9.47% and 8.37% between high and low folate supplementation groups, respectively. No significant differences were found in CpG methylation of SREBP-1c promoter among all groups in different periods (P>0.05). The expression of liver FAS showed the similar tendency with SREBP-1c, and reached the peak at day 1, on which the difference among groups was significant (P<0.05). Surprisingly, the rates in methylation of CpG sites at the FAS gene promoter region were highly hypomethylated. Interestingly, the ACC mRNA expression was exactly opposite direction with FAS, and the significant effect of folate on ACC expression level was observed at the embryonic age of 16 days(P<0.05). Overall, the results indicated that folate supplementation could significantly elevate yolk folate deposition (P<0.05). Meanwhile maternal folate levels could significantly influence the transcription of some lipogenesis genes (SREBP-1c, FAS and ACC) in offspring, but the methylated regions in the promoters of SREBP-1c and FAS were not associated with gene expressions. Folate level seemed no effects on alterations in DNA methylation among groups. The results why folate status have no significant changes with CpG methylation pattern of SREBP-1c and FAS may be that folate status seems to modulate other gene expression and DNA methylation, indirectly influencing the expression of SREBP-1c.
  • WANG Shuang, ZHANG Hanxing, RUAN Dong, CHEN Wei, LIN Yingcai
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1807-1813. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.012
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    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary niacin supplemental level on laying performance, egg quality and plasma biochemical indexes of ducks during the early laying period. One thousand and fifty healthy Fujian Longyan ducks with the age of 105 days were randomly allotted into 7 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 25 ducks per replicate. Ducks in the 7 treatments were fed the basal diets supplemented with 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 mg/kg niacin, respectively. The experiment lasted for 28 days. The results showed as follows: 1) dietary niacin supplemental level had no significant effects on laying performance of ducks during the early laying period (P>0.05), when dietary niacin supplemental level was 15 mg/kg, the laying rate and daily egg weight got the maximal value. 2) When dietary niacin supplemental levels were 15, 45 and 60 mg/kg, the yolk color had a increased tendency (P>0.05), however, when dietary niacin supplemental levels were 75 and 60 mg/kg, it significantly decreased (P<0.05). The eggshell thickness was significantly increased with dietary niacin supplemental level increasing (P<0.05). 3) The contents of triglyceride, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol in plasma were significantly decreased with dietary niacin supplemental level increasing (P<0.05); the plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol content was significantly increased with dietary niacin supplemental level increasing (P<0.05), when dietary niacin supplemental level was 90 mg/kg, it significantly decreased (P<0.05). In conclusion, the suggested dietary niacin supplemental level is 15 mg/kg in the corn-soybean diet of ducks during the early laying period, which means dietary total niacin level is 47 mg/kg. Dietary niacin level regulates the lipids metabolism in dose-dependent manner.
  • WANG Chao, WANG Baowei, GE Wenhua, ZHANG Ming, YUE Bin, ZHANG Kailei
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1814-1821. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.013
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    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of vitamin B6 on growth performance, slaughter performance and protein metabolism of Wulong geese, and to determine the optimal dietary level of vitamin B6. Three hundred and sixty 1-day-old Wulong geese were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates in each group and 10 geese in each replicate. Geese in groups Ⅰ to Ⅵ were fed the corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg/kg vitamin B6, respectively. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks. The results showed as follows: 1) vitamin B6 significantly increased average daily gain of geese aged from 1 to 4 weeks (P0.05); when the dietary vitamin B6 level was 6.16 mg/kg, the average daily gain reached the highest. 2) Compared with the control group,the contents of serum total protein, albumin and globulin in group Ⅲ was significantly increased (P<0.05). 3) The activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and content of total free amino acids in liver had significant correlation with the growth performance (P<0.05). In conclusion: 1) vitamin B6 has significant influence on growth performance and slaughter performance of Wulong geese aged from 1 to 4 weeks. 2) The optimal supplement level of vitamin B6 can increased the protein metabolism level, and the recommended supplemental level of vitamin B6 is 6.16 mg/kg.
  • Ruminant Nutrition
  • ZHUANG Yu, WANG Qi, CAO Huabin, HU Guoliang, LUO Junrong, GU Xiaolong
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1822-1829. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.014
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    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of molybdenum (Mo) on serum anti-oxidative indices and hepatic apoptosis gene expressions of dairy goats challenged by cadmium (Cd). Thirty-six healthy Boer goats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Goats in test groups Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were all drenched 1 mg/kg BW Cd, and then were drenched 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg BW Mo, respectively, while those in test group Ⅰ were drenched demineralized water at the average dose of the other 3 groups. The experimental period was 50 days. Blood collection was carried out on days 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50, then serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, nitric oxide (NO) content and NO synthase (NOS) activity were determined; liver tissue samples were obtained on days 0, 25 and 50 after slaughter, then hepatic Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression levels were determined. The results showed as follows: 1) compared with test group Ⅰ, serum T-AOC, SOD activity and hepatic Bcl-2 gene expression level could be significantly decreased in test groups Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ (P<0.05), and serum NOS activity, MDA content, NO content and hepatic Bax gene expression level could be significantly increased in the above 3 groups (P<0.05); in addition, with the increase of experimental time, serum T-AOC, SOD activity and hepatic Bcl-2 gene expression level were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and serum MDA content, NO content, NOS activity and hepatic Bax gene expression level were significantly increased (P<0.05). 2) Compared among test groups Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, with the increase of Mo level, serum T-AOC and SOD activity were decreased, and serum MDA content, NO content and NOS activity and hepatic Bax gene expression level were increased when Cd were drenched at the same level. The results indicate that Mo and Cd can decrease serum antioxidant capacity and up-regulate the expressions of hepatic apoptosis genes, and they had a synergetic effect.
  • ZHANG Xiaoming, WANG Zhisheng, TANG Chunmei, CHEN Hui, CHEN Yan, ZOU Huawei, PENG Quanhui
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1830-1837. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.015
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    This study was conducted to study the effects of different dietary protein sources on energy and nitrogen metabolism and methane emission of beef cattle. Three healthy Xuanhan Yellow cattle with similar body weight fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were used in a 3×3 complete Latin square design. Soybean meal, rapeseed meal and cottonseed meal were used as protein sources to prepare experimental diets; the experiment was consisted of 3 periods with 20 days in each period (pre-experimental period: 10 days; digestion experiment: 3 days; breath metabolism experiment: 7 days). The results showed as follows: 1) total volatile fatty acid concentration in experimental groups was not significantly different (P>0.05); acetate concentration in soybean meal and rapeseed meal groups was significantly higher than that in cottonseed meal group (Prapeseed meal group>cottonseed meal group; NH3-N content in three groups was significantly different (Prapeseed meal group > cottonseed meal group. 2) Nitrogen intake, fecal nitrogen, digestible nitrogen and nitrogen digestibility in three groups were not significant different (P>0.05); urinary nitrogen in soybean meal and cottonseed meal groups was significantly higher than that in rapeseed meal group (Pcottonseed group meal>rapeseed meal group; net energy for gain (NEg), NEg/gross energy, NEg/digestive energy and NEg/metabolizable energy in soybean meal group were significantly lower than those in rapeseed meal and cottonseed meal groups (Prapeseed meal group>cottonseed group meal. It is concluded that nitrogen biological value of the diet with rapeseed meal as the protein source is the highest, that with soybean meal is lower, and that with cottonseed meal is the lowest; NEg of the diet with cottonseed meal as the protein source is the highest, that with rapeseed meal is lower, and that with soybean meal is the lowest; methane emission of the diet with soybean meal as protein source is the highest, that with rapeseed meal is lower, and that with cottonseed meal is the lowest.
  • CHAI Jianmin, DIAO Qiyu, TU Yan, WANG Haichao, ZHANG Naifeng
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1838-1847. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.016
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    In order to find the best early weaning time, the effects of early weaning time on tissue and organ development, slaughter performance and meat quality of Hu lambs were investigated in this experiment. Forty-eight new born Hu lambs with born weight of (2.5±0.2) kg were randomly divided into four groups with three replicates in each group and four lambs per replicate. Lambs in ER group (control group) were ewe reared to 60 days of age; lambs in EW10, EW20 and EW30 groups were weaned at 10, 20 and 30 days of ages, respectively, and were fed milk replacer to 60 days of age. All lambs were fed starter for fattening from 61 to 90 days of age. Four lambs in each group were slaughtered to determine tissue and organ weight, slaughter performance and meat quality at 90 days of age. The results showed as follows: body weight at 90 days of age, net gain and average daily gain in test groups were significantly higher than those in ER group (P0.05); partial slaughter indexes (live weight before slaughter, carcass weight and empty body weight) showed the same tendency as the above growth performance indices, while no significant differences were found in dressing percentage, eye muscle area and GR value among all the groups (P>0.05); lambs in test groups had significantly higher feet weight than ER group (P0.05); kidney weight in EW30 group was significantly lower than that in the rest three groups (P0.05), and no significant differences were found in the weight of the rest organs and tissues (P>0.05); rumen weight in test groups was significantly higher than that in ER group (P0.05); the eye muscle color's L* and b* values in test groups were significantly higher than those in ER group (P<0.05), while a* value, water losing rate and drip loss of eye muscle, and gluteus color's L*, a* and b* values were not significantly different among all the groups (P<0.05). It is concluded that early weaning is advantageous to upper growth and development of Hu lambs, especially at late growing stage, and 10 days of age is the best weaning time of Hu lambs for growth, organ and tissue development and meat production.
  • Special Economic Animal Nutrition
  • ZHANG Tietao, WANG Zhuo, GUO Qiang, LIU Zhi, GAO Xiuhua, YANG Fuhe, LI Guangyu, YANG Yahan
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1848-1855. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.017
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    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary fat level on reproduction performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen metabolism and postpartum weight of blue fox at the period of reproduction. The experiment was taken a single factor method, and seventy-five gestational healthy female foxes were randomly assigned into 5 groups with 15 foxes per group. The foxes were fed diets contained 15% (group A), 17%(group B), 19%(group C), 21% (group D)and 23% (group E) crude fat, respectively. The pre-test period lasted for 7 days and the trial period lasted for 120 days. The results showed as follow: 1) there were no significant differences in the average litter number, weaning survival rate and little weight at birth of female foxes among all groups (P>0.05); at 21 and 42 days, the higher dietary fat level could increased the body weight of little foxes. 2) The dry matter intake of female foxes in group E was significantly higher than that in groups B and C (P0.05). 3) The nitrogen intake of female foxes in group E was significantly higher than that in group B (P0.05). 4) The body weight of female foxes in group A was significantly lower than that in group E at postpartum 21 days (P0.05). In conclusion, the foxes fed the dietary fat level from 17% to 19% have the good reproduction performance, and the fox can effectively utilize the dietary nutrition.
  • Aquaculture Nutrition
  • WANG Zirui, QIAO Shiyan, LI Bo, RUAN Jiming, WEI Lili, YANG Zhuqing
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1856-1863. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.018
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    This experiment was to investigate the effects of cecropin in diets on growth performance, non-specific immune function and immunoprotective rate of triploid crucian carp. A total of 1 242 tails triploid crucian carp with an average body weight of (46.14±0.13) g were randomly allocated into 6 groups with 3 replicates per group, and fed with basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with 4 mg/kg aureomycin, basal diet supplemented with 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/kg cecropin, respectively. The above diets contained the same crude protein level (32.27%) and metabolizable energy level (12.85 MJ/kg). The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the growth, immunity and body indices were measured. The results showed as follows: 1) final body weight (FBW), weight growth rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) in 150 mg/kg group were increased by 15.0%, 37.4% and 27.5%, respectively, compared with control group (P0.05). 4) Crude lipid content in muscle in 250 mg/kg group was lower than that in control group (P0.05). 5) The artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila caused mortality in all groups, and the mortality of triploid crucian carp was low in 48 h, while the mortality reached the peak between 48 to 72 h. Compared with control group, the survival ratio in cecropin groups were obviously higher. Together, our results indicate that diets supplemented with cecropin can improve triploid crucian carp growth performance, and the effects of 150 and 200 mg/kg cecropin are better, which improve non-specific immunity function and disease resistance.
  • WANG Xin, XUE Min, WANG Jia, ZHENG Yinhua, WU Xiufeng, HAN Fang, WU Lixin
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1864-1872. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.019
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    A 59-day growth trial was conducted to determine the dietary lysine (Lys) requirement of grow-up gibel carp (Carassiusauratus gibeilo). On the basis of practical diet formulation, six isonitrogenous experimental diets were formulated containing 1.01%, 1.23%, 1.47%, 170%, 1.93% and 2.21% Lys, respectively. L-Lys·HCl was Lys source and essential amino acid crystal mixture was supplied in diets to balance the other essential amino acid requirement except Lys for gibel carp. A total of 480 gibel carp with an initial body weight of (52.53±0.03) g were chosen and randomly distributed into 6 groups with 4 replicates per group and 20 fish per replicate. The results showed as follows: the weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) in 1.23% to 2.21% groups were significantly higher than those in 1.01% group (P0.05). The moisture content in whole body was significantly lower, while the ash content was significantly higher in 1.70% group than those in 1.93% and 2.21% groups (P0.05). Dietary Lys level had significant effects on the activity of hepatopancreas aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and showed a trend of first increase and then down with the dietary Lys level increasing, while the activity of hepatopancreas alanine transarninase (ALT) was not affected by dietary Lys level (P>0.05). Dietary Lys level significantly affected the hardness, springiness and chewiness of fresh meat, and the hardness and chewiness of cooked meat (P<0.05). Using SGR, PRR and hepatopancreas AST activity as indices, quadratic regression analysis indicate the dietary Lys requirements of grow-up gibel carp are 1.78%, 1.43% and 1.51%, respectively (5.14%, 4.14% and 4.44% of dietary protein, respectively).
  • CHEN Kequan, YE Yuantu, CAI Chunfang, HUANG Yuwei, LIU Hanchao, GONG Zhi, WU Tao, ZHANG Baotong, XIAO Peizhen
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1873-1879. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.020
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    In order to investigate the effects of dietary soybean meal content on hepatopancreas structure and function of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), grass carp with an average body weight of (15.5±1.4) g were used as test object, and 4 isonitrogenous diets were designed which containing 0 (control group), 20%, 40% and 60% soybean meal, respectively. A total 240 grass carp were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates per group and 20 fish per replicate. After 6 weeks feeding in pond cages, the hepatopancreas function indexes in serum, hepatopancreas index and hepatopancreas lipid content of grass carp were examined, and the tissue structure of hepatopancreas was observed. The results showed as follows: the highest values of serum globulin (GLB), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol (TC) contents and alkaline phosphatase activity were all found in the 60% group, and there were significant differences between the 60% group and the other groups (P0.05), but the 60% group was the least. Hepatopancreas nuclear area in 60% group was the biggest, in addition to the 40% group, had no significant difference compared with the other groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the ratio of nuclear volume and cell volume (Vn/Vc) among all groups (P>0.05), and the 40% group was minimum, the 60% group was penultimate. The results indicate that adding 60% soybean meal in diets of grass carp can cause the serum lipid and hepatopancreas lipid content increasing, and may lead to the injury of tissue structure and function of hepatopancreas.
  • YANG Qing, YANG Rui, ZHOU Qicun, CHEN Jian, LIANG Xiongpei
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1880-1887. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.021
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    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fucoidan on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteoobagrus fulvidraco). A total of 420 individuals of juvenile yellow catfish with similar size and body weight were randomly allocated to 7 groups with 3 replicates per group and 20 fish per replicate. The fish in control group were fed a basal diet without fucoidan, and those in experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with fucoidan extracted from Sargassum horneri and commercial fucoidan purchased from the market, and the effective concentrations added in diets were 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.20%, respectively. The experiment was carried on for 12 weeks. The results showed as follows: adding the extractive fucoidan at the effective concentration of 0.10% could significantly increase the final body weight (FBW), weight gain ratio (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of yellow catfish (P0.05). Adding 2 kinds of fucoidan had no significant effects on the feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency rate (PER) (P>0.05), and had no significant effects on the activities of amylase and pepsin in stomach and amylase in intestine (P>0.05). The activity of lipase in stomach and intestine increased more or less when the fish were fed diets with the two kinds of fucoidan. There was a significant improvement in gastric lipase activity when the fish were fed diets with extractive fucoidan at the effective concentration of 0.10% and commercial fucoidan at the effective concentrations of 0.05% to 0.20% (P<0.05). And, adding extractive fucoidan at the effective concentrations of 0.05% to 0.20% and commercial fucoidan at the effective concentration of 0.20% could significantly increase the intestinal lipase activity. The results indicate that adding the extractive fucoidan at the effective concentration of 0.10% can significantly promote the growth of juvenile yellow catfish; both the extractive fucoidan and commercial fucoidan can improve the gastrointestinal lipase activity at a certain effective concentration.
  • Molecular Nutrition
  • ZHOU Shuangyan, YANG Qihui, TAN Beiping, DONG Xiaohui, CHI Shuyan, LIU Hongyu, ZHANG Shuang
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1888-1899. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.022
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    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary copper source and supplemental level on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, non-specific immune enzyme activities and muscle amino acid contents of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Thirteen isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by using two-factor experimental design with different copper sources and different copper supplemental levels (0, 8, 16, 32 and 64 mg/kg, respectively). A total of 1 560 juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei with an initial body weight of (0.330±0.001) g were randomly distributed into 13 groups with 3 replicates per group and 40 shrimps per replicate. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed that final body weight (FBW), weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR) and survive rate (SR) of shrimps were significantly affected by copper supplemental level (P<0.05), and the FBW, WGR and SGR in groups supplemented with 8 to 64 mg/kg copper were significantly higher than those in groups without copper supplementation (P<0.05). Dietary copper source had significant influences on serum total protein (TP) and triglycerides (TG) contents (P<0.05), and copper supplemental level had significant influences on serum TP, glucose (GLU) and TG contents (P<0.05). The interaction of copper source and supplemental level had significant influences on serum TP content (P<0.05), and the HMC group supplemented with 32 mg/kg copper had the highest serum TP content. The activities of phenoloxidase (PO) and ceruloplasmin (CP) in serum and the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-ZnSOD) in hepatopancreas were significantly affected by copper source, supplemental level and the interaction of copper source and supplemental level (P<0.05). The contents of alanine (Ala), arginine (Arg), aspartic acid (Asp), glycine (Gly) and glutamic acid (Glu) in muscle were significantly affected by copper source and supplemental level (P<0.05), and there were significantly interaction between copper source and supplemental level in the contents of Ala, Asp, Gly and Glu in muscle (P<0.05). With the serum CP activity as evaluation index and the HMC, TBCC and SC as copper sources, broken-line model show that the optimal contents of copper in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei diets are 17.52, 20.32 and 20.29 mg/kg, respectively. By comparing, the HMC has the highest relative bioavailability, followed by SC, and the lowest is TBCC.
  • Feed Science and Technology
  • CAO Guibin, XIONG Hao, YOU Jinming, YU Huimin, WEI Qipeng, ZOU Zhiheng, YE Yaling
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1900-1907. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.023
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    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of new heat-resistant phytase (NHP) on the metabolism of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) and apparent nutrient digestibility in weaner piglets by replacing part of calcium hydro phosphate by NHP in low-phosphorus diet. A total of 256 piglets weaned at 30 days of age and with the similar genetic background were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 4 replicates per treatment and 16 piglets per replicate using a randomized complete-block design. They were fed basal diet, low-phosphorus diet, low-phosphorus diet+500 U/kg NHP, and low-phosphorus diet+1 000 U/kg NHP, respectively. The experiment lasted for 30 d. The results showed as follows: 1) there was no significant difference in serum Ca and P contents and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity among all treatments (P>0.05). However, serum Ca and P in the NHP treatments had tendencies of going upward. 2) Compared with low-phosphorus diet, the supplementation of 500 or 1 000 U/kg NHP improved Ca and P contents and ash ratio in coffin bone, but there were no differences among all treatments (P>0.05). 3) The phalanx section of piglets fed the diets supplemented with NHP showeded thicker compact bone and higher cancellous bone than those in basal diet group and low-phosphorus diet group. 4) The apparent digestibility of gross energy (GE), Ca, total phosphorus (TP), and dry matter (DM) in basal diet group, 500 U/kg NHP group and 1 000 U/kg NHP group were higher than those in basal diet group and low-phosphorus diet group (P<0.05). In conclusion, by using NPH to replace part of P in diets can improve the metabolism of Ca and P in piglets as well as the apparent digestibility of some nutrients. In addition, 1 000 U/kg NHP is an appropriate choice to replace phosphorus in diet.
  • Feed Security
  • CAO Zhenghui, WANG Zhanbin, GU Xianhong
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1908-1915. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.024
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    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) brown rice on exogenous protein residues, exogenous gene residues and organ damage in growing pigs. Thirty Large White growing pigs with the body weight of (35.76±2.52) kg were randomly allocated into 2 treatments with 15 replicates per treatment. Pigs in control group were fed a basal diet + 70% non-transgenic Bt brown rice, and the pigs in test group were fed the basic diet + 70% transgenic Bt brown rice. The experiment lasted for 90 days. The results showed that dietary supplemented with transgenic Bt brown rice had no effects on the submicroscopic structure of the visceral organs of growing pigs. Exogenous protein and exogenous genes were not found in tissues organs, body fluids and excreta of growing pigs through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. The results suggest that supplemented 70% transgenic Bt brown rice in growing pig's diet, the exogenous genes and protein can be completely digested and absorbed by digestive tract without any residual in the body and will not damage the visceral organs.
  • Feed Resources Development
  • FU Min, HE Jun, YU Bing, MAO Xiangbing, ZHENG Ping, HUANG Zhiqing, YU Jie, CHEN Daiwen
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1916-1924. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.025
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    A total of 24 healthy crossbred (Duroc×Landrace×Large White) barrows with an initial body weight of (26.56±0.76) kg were used to study the nutrient value of fermented rapeseed cake (FRSC) by solid-state fermentation with multi-strains. Those pigs were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. The 4 diets were N-free diet, corn-soybean basal diet, rapeseed cake (RSC)-diet and FRSC-diet (35% protein of basal diet were substituted by FRSC or RSC). The digestive and metabolic trial consisted of a 4-d diet adaptation and a 4-d feces and urine collection. Then all pigs were slaughtered after intravenous anesthesia to collect ileal digesta. Nutrient digestibility and availability, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestible (SID) of amino acids were measured. The experimental results showed that the apparent digestibilities of crude protein, dry matter and gross energy of FRSC were 70.00%, 82.36% and 81.15%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of RSC (P<0.05); nitrogen apparent (true) digestibility, nitrogen apparent (true) availability and digestible energy of FRSC were 70.00% (88.57%), 65.78% (72.35%) and 12.98 MJ/kg, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of RSC (P<0.05). Compared with RSC, the AID of Lys, Met, Trp and Thr of FRSC were 74.13%, 85.76%, 57.57% and 67.12%, respectively; except for Met, Trp, Phe and Tyr, the AID of essential amino acid and non-essential amino acid were significantly higher than those of RSC (P<0.05), and SID followed a similar pattern as AID. Overall, the nutrient digestibility and availability of RSC are improved by solid-state fermentation with multi-strains.
  • Short Communications
  • SUN Renjie, HAN Xiao, CUI Huawei, WANG Kunkun, WANG Yongxia
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1925-1934. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.026
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    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of zinc sulfate on feed intake and growth of growing pigs. A total of 120 cross-bred (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshine) pigs with similar body weight were randomly divided into 4 groups (control group, trial groups Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ), each of which included 3 replicates of 10 pigs (half males and half females). These 4 groups received the same basal diet supplemented with 60, 300, 1 000 or 3 000 mg/kg of zinc (as ZnSO4·7H2O), respectively. The experiment lasted 16 days. The results showed as follows: compared with the control group, 1) diet supplemented with zinc sulfate significantly improved average daily gain and decreased the ratio of feed to gain (P<0.05); 2) average daily feed intake at 7 to 16 days in trial group Ⅲ and 13 to 16 days in trial group Ⅱ was significantly increased (P<0.05); 3) the apparent digestibility of crude protein in trial group Ⅲ was significantly increased (P<0.05), and the apparent digestibility of crude fiber in trial groups Ⅲ and Ⅱ was significantly decreased(P<0.05); 4) the contents of serum IgG and IgM were significantly improved in trial groups Ⅲ and Ⅱ (P<0.05); 5) the activities of amylase and lipase in duodenum were significantly increased in the trial group Ⅲ (P<0.05); 6) the pigs in trial groups Ⅲ and Ⅱ had higher villous length and villous length/crypt depth as well as lower crypt depth of duodenum and jejunum (P<0.05); 7) the contents of plasma gastrin, insulin and neuropeptide Y of pigs in trial group Ⅲ were significantly increased (P<0.05). The results of this study indicate that the addition of high level of zinc sulfate can improve feed intake and growth performance of pigs through enhancing immunity and nutrient apparent digestibility, protecting intestinal mucosal morphology and stimulating the secretion of digestive enzymes, gastrin, insulin and neuropeptide Y.
  • YANG Zhi, ZHANG Decai, YANG Haiming, WANG Wei, ZHU Xiaochun, CAO Yujuan, JIANG Zhi
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1935-1941. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.027
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    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of pasture-based system on performance, egg quality, visceral organ indexes, reproductive system, and hematological parameters of laying hens. Sixty New Yangzhou laying hens were selected and randomly divided into 2 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment and 10 hens per replicate. Birds were reared in indoor confinement without outdoor access and raised in pens on litter with outdoor access to pasture, respectively. Birds were all fed ad libitum, and egg production and feed consumption were recorded daily. At 42 days of the test, two hens per replicate were randomly selected to collect blood samples at 08:00, and then slaughtered to determine the indexes related visceral organ and reproductive system. Six eggs per replicate were randomly selected to determine egg quality. The results showed as follows: compared with indoor rearing, the laying rate of laying hens in pasture-based system was significantly decreased (P0.05); the serum globulin content was significantly increased (P<0.01), and the hemoglobin content and haematocrit were significantly increased (P<0.05), but the serum albumin and glucose contents were distinctly decreased (P<0.01). It is concluded that compared with indoor rearing, pasture-based system can reduce the laying rate of laying hens, but meliorate the egg quality, increase gizzard index and cecum index, and improve the body health in a way.
  • CHEN Xing, WU Dawei, WEN Chao, ZHOU Yanmin
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1942-1949. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.028
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    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat treatment soy protein isolate (SPI) on pancreatic function of broilers. A total of 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates per group and 10 broilers per replicate. Broilers were fed a diet contained normal SPI (control group), or diets contained SPI heated in an oven at 100℃ for 1, 4, and 8 h, respectively. The experiment lasted for 21 days. The results showed that compared with the control group, there were no significant differences in pancreatic function parameters of broilers fed diets contained heated SPI at 14 days of age (P>0.05). The pancreas relative weight of broilers fed diets contained heated SPI was significantly higher than that in control group at 21 days of age (P<0.05). The activities of protease and trypsin in pancreas were significantly lower in broilers fed diets contained heated SPI heated for 8 h than those in control group (P<0.05). Broilers fed diets contained SPI heated for 8 h exhibited a decrease in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (P=0.058) and catalase (CAT) activity (P=0.064) compared with the control group at 21 days of age. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content of birds fed diets contained SPI heated for 8 h was significantly higher than that in control group at the same time (P<0.05). In addition, a tendency toward an increase in glutathione disulphide (GSSG) content (P=0.065) and an decrease in glutathione reductase (GR) activity (P=0.061) in broilers fed diets contained SPI heated for 8 h was observed at 21 days of age. Birds fed diets contained SPI heated for 4 and 8 h showed a significantly decrease in the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to GSSG and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than those in control group at 21 days of age (P<0.05). It is concluded that heated SPI ingestion after a specified period can increase the damage of pancreas function.
  • GUO Junrui, LIU Guohua, ZHENG Aijuan, CHANG Wenhuan, ZHANG Shu, CAI Huiyi
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1950-1961. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.029
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of selenomethionine (Se-Met) on growth performance, plasma and tissue selenium (Se) content and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of broilers, based on low selenium diet as a negative control, sodium selenite and selenium-enriched yeast (Se-yeast) as positive control. Seven hundred and fifty-six 1-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allocated into 7 groups with 6 replicates in each group and 18 broilers per replicate. Group 1 was the negative control group, and a low selenium basal diet was used. The diets of groups 2 to 7 were added 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 mg/kg Se-Met, 0.3 mg/kg sodium selenite (positive control group) and 0.3 mg/kg Se-yeast (positive control group) in the low selenium basal diet, respectively. The experiment lasted for 42 d. The results showed that there were no significant differences in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed/gain (F/G), initial weight, final weight and mortality of boilers (P>0.05). However, compared with the negative control group, the supplementation of Se significantly increased Se content in plasma of broilers at different days of age (P<0.05). Se content in plasma was increased with the increase of Se supplemental level, and the effects of Se-Met were superior to thoae of the 2 positive control groups on the same supplemental level. There was a significant interaction between days of age and Se supplemental level about Se content in plasma (P<0.01). GSH-Px activity in plasma was significantly higher in Se supplemental groups compared with negative control group at different days of age (P<0.05). Among the Se supplemental groups, GSH-Px activity of the 0.1 mg/kg Se group was lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05). There was significant interaction between days of age and Se supplemental level (P<0.01). Compared with negative control group, the supplementation of Se significantly increased Se content in liver, kidney, muscle, skin and fat (P<0.05). The Se content in tissues was increased with the supplemental level of Se increased. The effects of Se-Met supplemental groups were superior to 2 positive control groups at the same supplemental level. In conclusion, adding organic Se or inorganic Se can't improve growth performance of broilers. However, it can increase GSH-Px activity and Se content of plasma and tissue, especially, in terms of tissue Se content, and Se-Met is superior to sodium selenite and Se-yeast.
  • WU Anquan, ZHANG Yongliang
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1962-1967. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.030
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    This study was conducted to study the effects of N-acetyl-DL-methionine (NAM) on environmental parameters in rumen and the apparent disappearance rate in forestomach of sheep. Four 35 kg Boer goat wethers fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin square design, and were ruminally administered with graded levels of NAM (0, 4, 6 and 8 g/d, respectively); the experiment consisted of 4 periods with 16 days per period (10-day pre-experiment and 6-day experiment). The samples of rumen fluid and duodenal chymus were collected in the first 3 days and the last 3 days of experimental period, respectively, to determine evacuation rate, pH and osmotic pressure of rumen fluid, and the apparent disappearance rate of NAM. The results showed as follows: 1) the evacuation rate and pH of rumen fluid of sheep administered with 6 and 8 g/d NAM were significantly decreased (P<0.05), however, the osmotic pressure of rumen fluid was significantly increased (P<0.05). 2) The mean of apparent disappearance rate of NAM in forestomach after administered for 1.5 to 12.0 hours was 68.0% to 74.9%, and the disappearance rate of NAM in rumen after administered for 12.0 hours was 79.8% to 86.9%. In conclusion, NAM is not beneficial for ruminal digestion environment, it can decrease evacuation rate and pH, but increase osmotic pressure of rumen fluid, meanwhile, it has high apparent disappearance rate in forestomach (about 80% after 12 hours). Under condition in the present study, the ruminal administration of 6 and 8 g/d NAM has greater adverse impacts on sheep.
  • JIN Lu, YAN Sumei, BAO Hongyun, GONG Jian, SUN Juan, SHI Huiyu, LI Junliang
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1968-1974. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.031
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    This study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of coated vitamin A on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows. Twenty-eight Holstein cows were used in a single factor randomized block arrangement and were divided into 2 groups with 14 replicates in each group by the principle of similar body weight, milk yield and parity. Coated vitamin A at two levels (110 and 220 IU/kg BW, respectively) was supplemented to a basal diet (concentrate:roughage was 42:58). Pre-trial period was 15 days and trial period was 60 days. The results showed as follows: compared with 110 IU/kg BW group, vitamin A content, propionate acid concentration and ether extract apparent digestibility in rumen fluid in 220 IU/kg BW group could be significantly increased (P0.05). Based on recommend requirement in NRC (2001) (110 IU/kg BW), further increased coated vitamin A level to 220 IU/kg BW can promote digestion of ether extract and increase vitamin A content and propionate acid concentration in rumen fluid without affecting the function of ruminal fermentation.
  • YANG Hongbo, LIU Hong, CHEN Yinyue, CHEN Zhiyuan, MA Tingting, YU Tongshui, LIU Zhengxu, ZHAO Guoqi
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1975-1980. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.032
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    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal supplemental level of cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) in diets for lactating Holstein dairy cows. Forty-eight healthy Holstein dairy cows, similarly in milk yield, days in lactation and parity, were allocated into six groups in a randomized complete block design with eight cows per group. Cows were supplemented with CSH at 0 (control group), 15, 30, 75, 150 and 300 g/d in the basal diet. The pre-experimental period lasted for 14 days, and the experimental period lasted for 56 days. The performance and serum hormone levels of cows were detected. The results showed that average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily milk production and 4% fat corrected milk yield were the highest when supplemented with 75 g/d CSH, then those indices were decreased with the increase of CSH supplemental level, while there was no significant difference in ADFI between 15 to 150 g/d groups and control group (P>0.05), and 300 g/d group had the lowest ADFI; milk fat percentage and milk total solids content were the highest when supplemented with 75 g/d CSH, and there were no significant differences between other experimental groups and control group (P>0.05); milk urea nitrogen content was decreased with the increase of CSH supplemental level, and 300 g/d group was the lowest. When supplemented with 15 g/d CSH, serum growth hormone (GH) and thyroxine contents were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05); and when supplemented with 30 g/d CSH, serum GH and triiodothyronine contents were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the optimal supplemental level of CSH for Chinese Holston dairy cows is 15 to 75 g/d.
  • CHEN Xiaolin, SUN Juan, CHEN Dandan, WANG Bo, TU Yan, DIAO Qiyu
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1981-1987. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.033
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    This experiment was conducted to determine the ruminal outflow rates of five kinds of regular roughages (Chinese wildrye, wheat straw, alfalfa, sweet potato vine and corn stalk) in meat sheep. Three healthy emasculated Dorper×Han crossbred F1 male sheep with similar body weight [(65.0±1.0)] fitted with permanent ruminal fistulas were selected in this experiment. Five roughages were mordanted by potassium dichromate solution, flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine chromium content of fecal samples, and the ruminal outflow rates of five kinds of roughages were calculated with mathematical equations. The results showed as follows: chromium in different mordanted roughages were expelled from feces at different crest-time and focused on the 20 to 28 h. There were differences in the outflow rates of different roughages. The outflow rates of Chinese wildrye, wheat straw, alfalfa, sweet potato vine and corn stalk were 3.92%/h, 3.07%/h, 4.30%/h, 4.63%/h and 3.16%/h, respectively, and the outflow rate had a strong correlation with the crude protein content in feed ingredients (R2=0.903 5,P=0.013 1). In conclusion, different kinds of roughages have different outflow rates from rumen. The outflow rates of Chinese wildrye, wheat straw, alfalfa, sweet potato vine and corn stalk in the study can be used in further related researches.
  • HU Jing, YU Ziyang, ZHU Yajun, LIN Yingting, CHENG Ming, WANG Wenxin, LIU Kaidong
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1988-1995. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.034
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    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on ruminal microflora and degradation rate of common roughages of dairy goats. Four 8-month-old healthy Laoshan dairy goats with similar body weight were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. Goats in different groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 0.8% (test groupⅠ), 1.2% (test groupⅡ) and 1.6% (test group Ⅲ) FOS (calculated as effective content), respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 stages with 35 days per stage, and each stage had a pre-experimental period of 7 days followed by an experimental period of 28 days. Ruminal fluid was collected for the analysis of the number of total bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacteria, protozoa and fungi after 0 (before morning feeding), 2, 4,6 and 10 h (before afternoon feeding) of feeding in the morning; meanwhile, ruminal degradation rate of common roughages was determined by the method of nylon bag. The results showed as follows: 1) compared with control group, ruminal dry matter degradation rate of alfalfa, maize silage, peanut vine and distillers' grains in test groups was significantly increased (P0.05) except for at 4 h ; there were no significant effects of FOS on protozoa number (P>0.05). In conclusion, under the conditions in the present study, the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria and fungi is increased by supplementation of FOS, as well as ruminal degradation rate of roughages; the optimal supplemental level is 1.2%.
  • ZHANG Xiaoyue, LI Haili, QI Dasheng, GU Zilin, HUANG Yuting
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 1996-2002. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.035
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    This trial was carried out to evaluate the nutritional values of sweet potato waste and manioc waste for growing Rex rabbits. Thirty white growing Rex rabbits at the age of 100 days with an average weight of (1.78±0.20) kg were divided into 3 groups with 5 replicates in each group and 2 rabbits per replicate. A basal diet was formulated to meet requirements for growing Rex rabbits and two trial diets were formulated by substituting 15% of the basal diet with sweet potato waste and manioc waste, respectively. Total fecal collection method was applied in the digestion test. Both pretrial and trial period was 5 days. The results showed as follows: 1) gross energy (GE) and the contents of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber(NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), ether extract (EE), ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) of sweet potato waste were 13.49 MJ/kg, 90.08%, 2.63%, 10.66%, 16.90%, 13.27%, 4.56%, 2.77%, 8.74%, 1.12% 0.17% and 65.29%, respectively, and those of manioc waste were 14.30 MJ/kg, 95.76%, 2.39%, 16.85%, 16.64%, 13.08%, 2.67%, 4.41%, 3.05%, 0.91%, 0.07% and 69.07%, respectively. 2) The apparent digestible energy of sweet potato waste and manioc waste were 11.47 and 13.06 MJ/kg, respectively . The apparent digestibility of GE, DM, CP, CF, NDF, ADF, EE, ash, Ca,P and NFE of sweet potato waste were 85.00%, 74.64%, 92.60%, 20.84%, 30.13%, 10.69%, 41.47%, 9.25%, 34.16%, 47.33%, 51.13% and 80.57%, respectively, and those of manioc waste were 91.36%, 89.92%, 88.94%, 58.08%, 30.09%, 5.39%, 27.02%, 7.24%, 84.27%, 70.30%, 27.43% and 96.25%, respectively. In conclusion, there are certain differences between the nutrient digestibility of sweet potato waste and manioc waste for growing Rex rabbits, and the values of manioc waste are better than those of sweet potato waste combined with the chemical analysis of feed ingredients.
  • BAO Kun, LI Guangyu, LIU Baiyang, XU Chao, YUE Zhigang, ZHAO Jiaping
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 2003-2008. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.036
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    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary manganese level on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism of growing Wusuli raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Ninety healthy male raccoon dogs at the age of (60±2) days were randomly divided into 6 groups with 15 replicates per group and 1 raccoon dog per replicate. The raccoon dogs in the 6 groups were fed experimental diets with manganese supplemental levels of 0 (group Ⅰ), 40 (group Ⅱ), 80 (group Ⅲ), 120 (group Ⅳ), 200 (group Ⅴ) and 400 mg/kg (groupⅥ), respectively.The pre-test period lasted for 5 days and the trial period lasted for 62 days. The results showed as follows: 1) the final weight and average daily gain in group Ⅱ were significantly higher than those in group Ⅰ (P0.05). The ether extract digestibility in group Ⅴ was significantly higher than that in group Ⅰ (P0.05). Under this study condition, based on comprehensive consideration of the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism of growing raccoon dog, it is suggested that the optimal supplemental level of manganese in the basal diet is 40 mg/kg for growing raccoon dog, total level of manganese in the diet is 62.23 mg/kg.
  • ZHOU Xiaobo, HUANG Yanhua, CAO Junming, KUANG Zheshi, WANG Guoxia, HUANG Wenqing, LIU Xiaoling
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 2009-2017. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.037
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    An 8-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus with different strains in diets on growth performance, body composition, serum biochemical indices and intestinal flora of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus×O. aureu). A total of 480 hybrid tilapia with an initial body weight of (3.49±0.01) g were randomly divided into 6 groups with 4 replicates per group and 20 fish per replicate. Among them, the fish in control group (group G0) were fed a basal diet, while those in the other 5 groups were fed the basal diets supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus (group G1), Lactobacillus plantarum (group G2), Lactobacillus pentosus (group G3), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (group G4) and Enterococcus faecalis (group G5), respectively. The number of Lactobacillus in diets from groups G0 to G5 was 1.30×103, 5.10×108, 2.97×108, 3.03×108, 2.30×108 and 3.47×108 CFU/g, respectively. The results showed as follows: at the end of the experiment, compared with group G0, the weight gain rate and specific growth rate in groups G2, G3 and G5 were significantly increased (P<0.05), the feed conversion ratio in groups G3 and G5 was significantly reduced (P<0.05), the whole body crude protein content in groups G3 and G4 was significantly increased (P<0.05), the whole body moisture content in group G3 was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the serum cholesterol content in groups G1, G2, G4 and G5, serum triglyceride content in groups G4 and G5, serum urea nitrogen content in group G2, serum glucose content in group G4 and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity in groups G4 and G5 were all significantly decreased (P<0.05). Moreover, the number of intestinal Lactobacillus in groups G1, G2 and G5 and the number of intestinal Bacillus bifidus in group G1 were significantly higher than those in group G0 (P<0.05). Comprehensive analysis results indicate that the supplementation of Enterococcus faecalis show the best application effect for tilapia under the condition of this experiment. Adding Enterococcus faecalis in the diet can advance the growth, increase the feed utilization rate, decrease the contents of cholesterol and triglyceride and the activity of glutamic pyruvic transaminase in serum, raise the number of Lactobacillus in intestine, and improve the intestinal microenvironment of tilapia.
  • ZHOU Wei, XU Fanghua, CHEN Na, GAO Qingshan, LI Xiangzi
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 2018-2025. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.038
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    This study was conducted to determine the effects of α-linolenic acid on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the intermediates of bio-hydrogenation. In vitro batch culture was applied, and α-linolenic acid was added to a basal substrate at levels of 0 (CON group), 1.5% (LL group), 3.0% (ML group) and 4.5% (HL group) (DM basis), respectively. Each group had three replicates. The results showed as follows: 1) ammonia nitrogen content, and the concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, butyric acid in ML and LL groups were lower than those in CON group at different degree, while propionic acid concentration was higher than that in CON group. 2) With the increase of culture time, c9,c12-C18:2 content in CON and LL groups was decreased, while that in other two groups was increased and ML group reached the maximum at 12 h, which was significantly higher than that in CON and LL groups (P<0.01). 3) c9,t11,c15-CLnA and c9,t13,c15-CLnA contents in HL group were significantly higher than those in the other groups at each time point (P<0.01). 4) Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) contents in ML and HL groups were significantly higher than those in the other groups at 12 h (P<0.01). Therefore, dietary supplementation of α-linolenic acid can change ruminal fermentation pattern, produce a variety of C18:1 isomers, promote the accumulation of t11,c15-C18:2, CLA and CLnA in rumen fluid, and there is dose-effect relationship between total CLnA and α-linolenic acid.
  • TANG Xiaopeng, ZHAO Hua, TANG Jiayong, WANG Xuetao, JIA Gang, LIU Guangmang, CHEN Xiaoling, LONG Dingbiao
    Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2014, 26(7): 2026-2034. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2014.07.039
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    In this study, a solid-state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger was conducted to improve the nutritional quality of cassava residue and the optimal fermentation parameters were investigated. Firstly, a single factor experiment design was adopted to screen the optimal fungi inoculation size, rapeseed meal supplemental level, fermentation time, fermentation temperature, the ratio of substrate to moisture and initial pH according to the nutritional value of fermented cassava residue. An orthogonal experiment design was further used to investigate the effects of fermentation parameters such as fermentation time, fermentation temperature, the ratio of substrate to moisture and initial pH on the nutritional quality of cassava residue. The results showed as follows: 1) inoculated 3×106 Aspergillus niger spore per gram fermentation materials,added 15% rapeseed meal, controlled the ratio of substrate to water 1:1.50 and fermented with initial pH 4 at 36℃ for 4 days could get the optimal result. 2) Fermented cassava residue under the optimized condition described above and calculated based on dry matter, the crude fiber content was decreased from 22.26% to 17.71% (P<0.05) and the reducing sugar content was increased from 1.42% to 5.11% (P<0.05), crude protein content was increased from 8.67% to 13.48% (P<0.05), crude fat content was increased from 7.89% to 11.72% (P<0.05), the ash content was increased from 6.02% to 7.31% (P<0.05) after SSF, Moreover, after fermentation the enzyme activities of carboxy methyl cellulase, filter paper activity and β-glucosidase reached 9.05, 2.37, 2.35 U/g, respectively. Our results suggest that the SSF with Aspergillus niger offers an effective alternative to improving the nutritional value of cassava residue.